Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Si raccomanda il monitoraggio della fluconazolo e tacrolimus.
Aumento delle concentrazioni di tacrolimus e rischio di prolungamento dell'intervallo QTMeccanismo: entrambi i farmaci sono associati a un prolungamento del tempo QT. Tacrolimus è metabolizzato principalmente tramite gli isoenzimi CYP3A e trasportato tramite la glicoproteina P. Il fluconazolo è un potente inibitore del CYP2C9 e del CYP2C19 e inibisce moderatamente il CYP3A4 e la P-glicoproteina.
Effetto: in uno studio su 31 pazienti in terapia immunosoppressiva con tacrolimus, la dose di tacrolimus doveva essere ridotta in media del 68% dopo l'inizio della somministrazione di fluconazolo.
Misure: se il fluconazolo viene aggiunto a una terapia immunosoppressiva esistente, le concentrazioni di tacrolimus nel sangue intero devono essere monitorate e la dose ridotta se necessario per la durata della somministrazione di antifungini. Dal punto di vista farmacodinamico, è prevedibile un prolungamento aggiuntivo dell'intervallo QT. I controlli ECG dovrebbero essere considerati sotto la combinazione.
Si raccomanda il monitoraggio della fluconazolo e diazepam.
Concentrazioni elevate di diazepam - sedazione aumentata / prolungataMeccanismo: il diazepam viene metabolizzato a livello epatico tramite l'enzima CYP3A4.
Effetto: l'effetto del diazepam può essere rafforzato e prolungato inibendo la degradazione. In uno studio con 12 volontari sani, è stato osservato un aumento di circa 2,5 volte sia dell'AUC che dell'emivita del diazepam con la combinazione diazepam-fluconazolo.
Misure: monitorare clinicamente la tollerabilità (ad es. Aumento della sedazione, vertigini), selezionare una dose di diazepam inferiore se necessario. Le benzodiazepine alternative possono essere lorazepam o oxazepam, che non sono metabolizzate dagli enzimi CYP.
|Diazepam||2.08 [1.46,2.35] 1||1||2.08|
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. L'esposizione alla diazepam è aumentata del 208%, quando è co-somministrata con la tacrolimus (100%) e la fluconazolo (208%). L' AUC è compreso tra lo 146% e il 235% in base al
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La diazepam ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 76%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 36 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 144 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 83 litri. Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2B6, CYP2C19 e CYP3A4..
La tacrolimus ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 40 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 160 ore. La finestra terapeutica è stretta e quindi il margine di sicurezza è piccolo. Anche piccoli cambiamenti nell'esposizione possono aumentare il rischio di tossicità. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto forte al 98.9% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 116 litri, Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Il metabolismo avviene principalmente attraverso l'enzima CYP3A4 e il trasporto attivo avviene parzialmente attraverso i trasportatori MRP2 e PGP.
La fluconazolo ha un elevata biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 90%, perciò nel corso di un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 30 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 120 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 11.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è di 56 litri. Circa il 80.0% della dose somministrata è escreta inalterata attraverso le urine e in seguito alle varie interazioni farmacologiche questo valore raramente cambia. Il metabolismo non avviene attraverso i tipici citocromi. .
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la diazepam, tacrolimus né la fluconazolo potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||+||Ø||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Diazepam possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la tacrolimus né la fluconazolo causano un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di tacrolimus e fluconazolo potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta. Non è noto se la diazepam sia potenzialmente in grado di prolungare l'intervallo QT
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||dia||tac||flu|
|Edema periferico||21.0 %||n.a.||21.0||n.a.|
|Mal di testa||20.4 %||n.a.||14.0||7.5|
|Eruzione cutanea||17.8 %||+||17.0||n.a.|
|Aumento della creatinina nel sangue||16.0 %||n.a.||16.0||n.a.|
Iperglicemia (15%): tacrolimus
Fibrillazione atriale (14.9%): tacrolimus
Arresto cardiaco (14.9%): tacrolimus
Infarto miocardico (14.9%): tacrolimus
Insufficienza cardiaca: tacrolimus
Sindrome da distress respiratorio acuto (14.9%): tacrolimus
Depressione respiratoria: diazepam
Insonnia (14%): tacrolimus
Parestesia (10%): tacrolimus
Convulsioni: diazepam, fluconazolo, tacrolimus
Nausea (5.6%): fluconazolo, tacrolimus
Vomito (2.7%): fluconazolo, tacrolimus
Effetto hangover: diazepam
Effetto rimbalzo: diazepam
Fosfatasi alcalina aumentata: fluconazolo
ALT aumentata: fluconazolo
AST aumentata: fluconazolo
Epatotossicità: fluconazolo, tacrolimus
Insufficienza epatica: fluconazolo
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson: fluconazolo
Necrolisi epidermica tossica: fluconazolo
Tempo di sanguinamento prolungato: tacrolimus
Sindrome DRESS: fluconazolo
Reazione di ipersensibilità: tacrolimus
Diabete mellito: tacrolimus
Sindrome emolitica uremica: tacrolimus
Insufficienza renale: tacrolimus
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: 1. The oral pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were studied in three groups of volunteers (n = 5) with various degrees of renal function (GFR greater than 70 ml min-1; 20-70 ml min-1; less than 20 ml min-1) and in a group of patients with chronic end-stage renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis. 2. The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole were markedly affected by impaired renal function with the elimination of half-life in Group III (GFR less than 20 ml min-1) being approximately three times that observed in normal volunteers (Group I). 3. Fluconazole renal clearance was positively correlated with GFR. 4. Non-renal clearance of fluconazole decreased with decreasing renal function. 5. Approximately 38% of the 50 mg dose of fluconazole was removed by haemodialysis extending over a 3 h period.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: Metabolism of diazepam (DZP) was studied in vitro to clarify the involvement of different forms of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, and humans of Japanese and Caucasian origin. Microsomal 3-hydroxylation was the major pathway of DZP metabolism in rats and was inhibited by anti-CYP3A antibodies. Purified CYP3As and CYP2C11 catalysed 3-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively, in the reconstituted systems. The rates of both reactions in human liver microsomes depended on the substrate concentration: the rate of 3-hydroxylation was 3-4 times higher than N-demethylation at 0.2 mM; the two activities were essentially the same at a lower substrate concentration (0.02 mM). Inhibitions of the N-demethylation by anti-CYP2C antibody and S-mephenytoin also depended on the substrate concentration and was detectable only at a low substrate concentration. Kinetic studies revealed the presence of two distinct catalytic activities for the N-demethylation; low Km and low Vmax, and high Km and high Vmax. The former activity seems to be mediated by a CYP2C P450 form. On the other hand, DZP 3-hydroxylation was rather selectively catalysed by a CYP3A P450 at the low and high substrate concentrations. These results were consistent with the observation in vivo that DZP N-demethylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation are closely correlated in humans. These results also suggest that the apparent discrepancy on the role of CYP forms in DZP metabolism in vitro and in vivo may reside in the difference in substrate concentration.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: The purpose of this open-label, prospective study was to compare steady state concentrations and clearances of intravenously administered cyclosporine or tacrolimus with and without concomitant high-dose (400 mg/day) fluconazole in allogeneic BMT patients. Twenty-one patients were evaluable. The mean steady state cyclosporine and tacrolimus concentrations without fluconazole were 320.3 and 18.2 ng/ml and increased to 389.2 and 21.2 ng/ml, respectively, after the addition of fluconazole, corresponding to a 21% (P=0.031) and 16% (P=0.125) increase. The mean steady state clearance of cyclosporine and tacrolimus without fluconazole was 6.82 and 1.28 ml/min/kg, which decreased to 5.57 and 1.10 ml/min/kg with fluconazole, corresponding to a 21% (P=0.031) and 16% (P=0.125) decrease, respectively. The 21% difference in the cyclosporine concentration and clearance was not thought to be clinically significant. These results suggest that fluconazole's interaction with cyclosporine or tacrolimus may be a result of fluconazole's inhibition of gut metabolism, resulting in a greater extent of absorption.
Abstract: Tacrolimus, a novel macrocyclic lactone with potent immunosuppressive properties, is currently available as an intravenous formulation and as a capsule for oral use, although other formulations are under investigation. Tacrolimus concentrations in biological fluids have been measured using a number of methods, which are reviewed and compared in the present article. The development of a simple, specific and sensitive assay method for measuring concentrations of tacrolimus is limited by the low absorptivity of the drug, low plasma and blood concentrations, and the presence of metabolites and other drugs which may interfere with the determination of tacrolimus concentrations. Currently, most of the pharmacokinetic data available for tacrolimus are based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, which does not distinguish tacrolimus from its metabolites. The rate of absorption of tacrolimus is variable with peak blood or plasma concentrations being reached in 0.5 to 6 hours; approximately 25% of the oral dose is bioavailable. Tacrolimus is extensively bound to red blood cells, with a mean blood to plasma ratio of about 15; albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein appear to primarily bind tacrolimus in plasma. Tacrolimus is completely metabolised prior to elimination. The mean disposition half-life is 12 hours and the total body clearance based on blood concentration is approximately 0.06 L/h/kg. The elimination of tacrolimus is decreased in the presence of liver impairment and in the presence of several drugs. Various factors that contribute to the large inter- and interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus are reviewed here. Because of this variability, the narrow therapeutic index of tacrolimus, and the potential for several drug interactions, monitoring of tacrolimus blood concentrations is useful for optimisation of therapy and dosage regimen design.
Abstract: The azole antimycotic itraconazole is a potent and relatively unspecific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes and has a potentially dangerous interaction with midazolam and triazolam. The possible interaction between itraconazole and diazepam was investigated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Ten healthy volunteers were given orally placebo or itraconazole 200 mg a day for 4 days. The challenge dose of 5 mg of diazepam was ingested on the fourth day, after which plasma samples were collected and psychomotor performance tests were carried out for 42 h. Despite a statistically significant small increase in the area under the plasma diazepam concentration-time curve and the elimination half-life of diazepam, there was no clinically significant interaction as determined by the psychomotor performance tests. The lack of significant first-pass metabolism and the different metabolic pathways of diazepam explain the smaller interaction potential of diazepam compared with midazolam and triazolam. Diazepam, unlike midazolam and triazolam, can be prescribed in usual doses for patients receiving itraconazole and probably other inhibitors of P4503A4, at least when diazepam is used as single doses.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of immunosuppressant agents is mandatory in the long-term management of transplant recipients. Herein, we report a case of near fatal cardiac arrhythmia related to the use of intravenous tacrolimus in a 35-year-old woman undergoing renal transplantation. METHODS: The patient had no previous history of cardiac disease, but an initial electrocardiogram demonstrated slightly prolonged QT and QTc intervals and normal sinus rhythm. Postsurgical immunosuppression included intravenous tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. During intravenous tacrolimus infusion, marked QT prolongation occurred. The patient suffered recurrent runs of torsade de pointes, refractory to aggressive medical management and requiring numerous defibrillations. Rapid atrial pacing eventually controlled the arrhythmia. RESULTS: We note not only a temporal association, but also a direct linear relationship, between this arrhythmia and blood tacrolimus levels. CONCLUSION: We believe this case presents a little recognized hazard associated with the use of intravenous tacrolimus and points to the need for careful predrug screening for QT prolongation. Tacrolimus has been shown to effect intracellular calcium and to prolong the action potential duration experimentally. This suggests that an increase in the intracellular calcium may underlie torsades de pointes associated with intravenous tacrolimus.
Abstract: Tacrolimus is a marketed immunosuppressant used in liver and kidney transplantation. It is subject to extensive metabolism by CYP3A4 and is a substrate for P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. A pharmacokinetic interaction with rifampin, an antituberculosis agent and potent inducer of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, and tacrolimus was evaluated in six healthy male volunteers. Tacrolimus was administered at doses of 0.1 mg/kg orally and 0.025 mg/kg/4 hours intravenously. The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus were obtained from serial blood samples collected over 96 hours, after single oral and intravenous administration prior to and during an 18-day concomitant rifampin dosing phase. Coadministration of rifampin significantly increased tacrolimus clearance (36.0 +/- 8.1 ml/hr/kg vs. 52.8 +/- 9.6 ml/hr/kg; p = 0.03) and decreased tacrolimus bioavailability (14.4% +/- 5.7% vs. 7.0% +/- 2.7%; p = 0.03). Rifampin appears to induce both intestinal and hepatic metabolism of tacrolimus, most likely through induction of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in the liver and small bowel.
Abstract: Tacrolimus is a macrolide lactone with potent immunosuppressive properties. It has been shown in clinical studies to prevent allograft rejection. The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in healthy subjects and transplant patients has been described in earlier studies using immunoassay methods; however, detailed information on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tacrolimus using a radiolabeled drug is lacking. The objective of the present study was to characterize the disposition of tacrolimus after single i.v. (0.01 mg/kg) and oral (0.05 mg/kg) administration of 14C-labeled drug in six healthy subjects. Tacrolimus was absorbed rapidly after oral dosing with a mean Cmax and Tmax of 42 ng/ml and 1 h, respectively. The oral bioavailability was about 20%. After i.v. and oral dosing, most of the administered dose was recovered in feces, suggesting that bile is the principal route of elimination. Urinary excretion accounted for less than 3% of total administered dose. In systemic circulation, unchanged parent compound accounted for nearly all the radioactivity; however, less than 0.5% of unchanged drug was detectable in feces and urine. The excretion of the metabolites was formation-rate-limited. The mean total body clearance at 37.5 ml/min was equivalent to about 3% of the liver blood flow. Renal clearance was less than 1% of the total body clearance. The mean elimination half-life was 44 h.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: A 25-year-old woman who was hospitalized for worsening endocarditis had a prolonged QT interval at baseline and developed monomorphic ventricular arrhythmias, which were managed successfully with pacing and antiarrhythmic therapy. Several days later, the patient started receiving high-dose fluconazole for fungemia and subsequently experienced episodes of torsades de pointes, a polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia associated with a prolonged QT interval or prominent U wave on the electrocardiogram. The arrhythmia developed in the presence of known risk factors. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors and other relevant structural similarities with drugs that cause torsades de pointes so that they can recognize patients who may be at risk for fluconazole-associated arrhythmia.
Abstract: Azole antifungals inhibit the metabolism of tacrolimus mediated by CYP3A4. Upon initiation of azole therapy, the required dose reduction of tacrolimus is unknown. We reviewed our experience with azole antifungals in our pediatric thoracic transplant population receiving tacrolimus. Tacrolimus levels and dosage requirements were compared before and during azole therapy. Thirty-one patients received both tacrolimus and an azole antifungal (fluconazole = 9, itraconazole = 22). The tacrolimus dose was empirically reduced by approximately one-third when azole therapy was initiated. Mean tacrolimus dose requirements decreased by 68% within the first month of therapy (pre-azole: 0.27 +/- 0.14 mg/kg/day; 30 day post-azole: 0.087 +/- 0.069 mg/kg/day; p < 0.001). Despite a mean decrease in tacrolimus dose from baseline of 33, 42, and 55% on day 1, 2, and 4 of azole therapy, respectively, there was still an unintended 38% increase in tacrolimus levels during the first month of azole therapy. A calculated dose-reduction protocol of 50% on day of azole initiation, 70% on day 3, and 75% on day 14 should result in minimal mean changes in the tacrolimus levels. There was no difference in tacrolimus dose reduction between fluconazole and itraconazole groups. Azole antifungals markedly decrease tacrolimus requirements within the first few days of therapy. An initial reduction in tacrolimus dose by one-third is insufficient, and dose reduction of at least 50% upon azole initiation seems warranted. Once azole antifungal therapy is initiated, frequent therapeutic drug monitoring is required.
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed torsade de pointes while being treated with fluconazole. CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old woman with a 5 year history of systemic lupus erythematosus was admitted to the intensive care unit because of respiratory insufficiency due to Candida albicans pneumonia. Therapy with intravenous fluconazole 200 mg/day, with dose later adjusted according to her renal function, was started. Prolongation of the QTc interval and torsade de pointes occurred. Initially, domperidone, which had been initiated the day before fluconazole, was suspected as the possible cause and was discontinued; ultimately, both drugs were discontinued. However, torsade de pointes recurred several weeks later when the patient was treated with fluconazole for a second time and disappeared again on withdrawal of the drug. According to the Naranjo probability scale, this adverse reaction was highly probable. DISCUSSION: The risk of torsade de pointes does not correlate in a linear fashion with prolongation of the QTc interval, but an interval beyond 500 msec is considered a significant risk factor. Given that both fluconazole and domperidone are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, they may intensify each other's proarrhythmic effects, particularly in patients with concurrent renal dysfunction. These risks are of particular concern in patients whose baseline QTc interval is prolonged for any reason. CONCLUSIONS: From the case history, as well as use of the Naranjo scale, we concluded that fluconazole was the highly probable cause of the development of torsade de pointes in our patient.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of voriconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers took 5 mg of oral diazepam in a randomised order on three study sessions: without pretreatment, after oral voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day, or after oral fluconazole 400 mg on the first day and 200 mg on the second day. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam were determined for up to 48 h. Pharmacodynamic variables were measured for 12 h. RESULTS: In the voriconazole phase, the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC 0-infinity) of diazepam was increased (geometric mean ratio) 2.2-fold (p < 0.05; 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 2.82). This was associated with the prolongation of the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from 31 h to 61 h (p < 0.01) after voriconazole. In the fluconazole phase, the AUC 0-infinity of diazepam was increased 2.5-fold (p < 0.01; 90% CI 1.94 to 3.40), and the t(1/2) was prolonged from 31 h to 73 h (p < 0.001). The peak plasma concentration of diazepam was practically unchanged by voriconazole and fluconazole. The pharmacodynamics of diazepam were changed only modestly. CONCLUSION: Both voriconazole and fluconazole considerably increase the exposure to diazepam. Recurrent administration of diazepam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions during voriconazole or fluconazole treatment, because the elimination of diazepam is impaired significantly.
Abstract: Fluconazole is an antifungal medication that has been reported to cause prolongation of the QT interval and Torsades de Pointes (TdP) ventricular tachycardia in adults. We describe the case of an 11-year-old child treated with fluconazole who developed ventricular arrhythmia culminating in TdP. We discuss the possible roles played by genetic and environmental factors in this child's rhythm disturbances. After briefly summarizing similar cases from the adult literature, we outline the putative mechanism by which fluconazole may cause arrhythmia. This case should alert pediatricians to the possible risks of fluconazole use, especially in the presence of electrolyte abnormalities, diuretic use, therapy with other pro-arrhythmic agents, or suspicion of congenital Long-QT Syndrome.
Abstract: PURPOSE: A case of torsades de pointes associated with fluconazole use is described. SUMMARY: A 68-year-old woman with a history of hypertension treated with 2.5 mg of indapamide for 16 months sought medical treatment after having two falls 1 month apart. A computed tomography scan and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a lesion in the left pons and middle cerebellar peduncle. Biopsy of the pontine lesion revealed large yeast forms and subsequently revealed Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. The patient was initially treated with conventional amphotericin B and flucytosine for six weeks. The first week of therapy was complicated by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and an episode of atrial fibrillation that was managed with electrolyte replacement, commencement of metoprolol, and switching from conventional amphotericin B to amphotericin B lipid complex. After six weeks, liposomal amphotericin was discontinued and high-dose oral fluconazole was initiated. Six days after beginning fluconazole therapy, the patient had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. Postresuscitation, an electrocardiogram demonstrated a corrected Q-T interval of 556 msec. Recurrent episodes of torsades de pointes were also recorded postarrest. Fluconazole was discontinued at this time, and liposomal amphotericin B was resumed. Neurologic and electroencephalographic assessment conducted 48 hours postarrest revealed that significant neurologic damage had been sustained. Supportive care was withdrawn, and the patient died two days later. A postmortem examination revealed no coronary artery disease or hemorrhagic transformation of the pontine cryptococcoma. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high-dose fluconazole was the probable cause of torsades de pointes in a patient with risk factors for this condition. The benefits and risks of using fluconazole should be carefully weighed for patients with risk factors for Q-T interval prolongation.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: UNLABELLED: The hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor telaprevir is an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A, responsible for the metabolism of both cyclosporine and tacrolimus. This Phase I, open-label, nonrandomized, single-sequence study assessed the effect of telaprevir coadministration on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of either cyclosporine or tacrolimus in two separate panels of 10 healthy volunteers each. In Part A, cyclosporine was administered alone as a single 100-mg oral dose, followed by a minimum 8-day washout period, and subsequent coadministration of a single 10-mg oral dose of cyclosporine with either a single dose of telaprevir (750 mg) or with steady-state telaprevir (750 mg every 8 hours [q8h]). In Part B, tacrolimus was administered alone as a single 2-mg oral dose, followed by a minimum 14-day washout period, and subsequent coadministration of a single 0.5-mg dose of tacrolimus with steady-state telaprevir (750 mg q8h). Coadministration with steady-state telaprevir increased cyclosporine dose-normalized (DN) exposure (DN_AUC(0-∞)) by approximately 4.6-fold and increased tacrolimus DN_AUC(0-∞) by approximately 70-fold. Coadministration with telaprevir increased the terminal elimination half-life (t(½)) of cyclosporine from a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 12 (1.67) hours to 42.1 (11.3) hours and t(½) of tacrolimus from a mean (SD) of 40.7 (5.85) hours to 196 (159) hours. CONCLUSION: In this study, telaprevir increased the blood concentrations of both cyclosporine and tacrolimus significantly, which could lead to serious or life-threatening adverse events. Telaprevir has not been studied in organ transplant patients; its use in these patients is not recommended because the required studies have not been completed to understand appropriate dose adjustments needed for safe coadministration of telaprevir with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, and regulatory approval has not been obtained.
Abstract: We present the occurrence of 'torsade de pointes' induced by the combination of peroperative fluconazole administration and sevoflurane anesthesia in a patient with 'long QT syndrome' (LQTS) scheduled for resection of a sacral abscess. Eight minutes following uneventful induction of anesthesia 'torsade de pointes' occurred, terminated by a counter shock. At this time the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane was 2%. The fluconazole infusion was disconnected and the operation was continued. Post-operatively the patient awakened uneventfully. The direct postoperative ECG showed a QTc of 531 ms (preoperative QTc of 442 ms.) and remained prolonged afterwards. A long QT syndrome was the most likely diagnosis. LQTS is classified as either congenital or acquired. Patients with acquired LQTS may have an underlying predisposition for QT prolongation. Many drugs have shown to be associated with a prolonged QT interval (1). The syndrome in this particular patient was unmasked by sevoflurane. Concomitant administration of fluconazole might have further predisposed the patient to the development of 'torsade des pointes'. Although LQTS is relatively rare, it is important for the anesthesiologist to be familiar with the disease because of the associated morbidity and mortality and the potential for anesthesia to induce malignant arrhythmias in asymptomatic carriers.
Abstract: UNLABELLED: The hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor boceprevir is a strong inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 (CYP3A4/5). Cyclosporine and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants used to prevent organ rejection after liver transplantation; both are substrates of CYP3A4. This two-part pharmacokinetic interaction study evaluated boceprevir with cyclosporine (part 1) and tacrolimus (part 2). In part 1, 10 subjects received single-dose cyclosporine (100 mg) on day 1, single-dose boceprevir (800 mg) on day 3, and concomitant cyclosporine/boceprevir on day 4. After washout, subjects received boceprevir (800 mg three times a day) for 7 days plus single-dose cyclosporine (100 mg) on day 6. In part 2A, 12 subjects received single-dose tacrolimus (0.5 mg). After washout, they received boceprevir (800 mg three times a day) for 11 days plus single-dose tacrolimus (0.5 mg) on day 6. In part 2B, 10 subjects received single-dose boceprevir (800 mg) and 24 hours later received boceprevir (800 mg) plus tacrolimus (0.5 mg). Coadministration of boceprevir with cyclosporine/tacrolimus was well tolerated. Concomitant boceprevir increased the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity after single dosing (AUC(inf) ) and maximum observed plasma (or blood) concentration (C(max) ) of cyclosporine with geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% confidence interval [CI]) of 2.7 (2.4-3.1) and 2.0 (1.7-2.4), respectively. Concomitant boceprevir increased the AUC(inf) and C(max) of tacrolimus with GMRs (90% CI) of 17 (14-21) and 9.9 (8.0-12), respectively. Neither cyclosporine nor tacrolimus coadministration had a meaningful effect on boceprevir pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSION: Dose adjustments of cyclosporine should be anticipated when administered with boceprevir, guided by close monitoring of cyclosporine blood concentrations and frequent assessments of renal function and cyclosporine-related side effects. Administration of boceprevir plus tacrolimus requires significant dose reduction and prolongation of the dosing interval for tacrolimus, with close monitoring of tacrolimus blood concentrations and frequent assessments of renal function and tacrolimus-related side effects.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the CYP3A5*3 allele on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and amlodipine, and drug-drug interactions between them in healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between tacrolimus and amlodipine were evaluated in a randomized, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy Chinese volunteers according to CYP3A5 genotype. A single-dose and multiple-dose study were designed. A 96-h pharmacokinetic study followed either tacrolimus or amlodipine dose, and the washout periods between the study phases were 14 days. In the single-dose study, apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of tacrolimus (5 mg) in CYP3A5 expressers was 3.8-fold (p = 0.008) higher than that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Amlodipine decreased mean tacrolimus CL/F in CYP3A5 expressers by 2.2-fold (p = 0.005), while it had no effect on that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CL/F of amlodipine in CYP3A5 non-expressers was 2.0-fold (p = 0.001) higher than that in CYP3A5 expressers. Tacrolimus increased mean amlodipine CL/F in CYP3A5 expressers by 1.4-fold (p = 0.016) while it had no effect on that in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Tacrolimus slightly reduced the AUC₀-∞ of amlodipine in both CYP3A5 expressers and non-expressers. Dose adjustment of tacrolimus should be considered according to CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism when tacrolimus is coadministered with amlodipine.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug used for the prevention of the allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients. It exhibits a narrow therapeutic index and large pharmacokinetic variability. Tacrolimus is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 and effluxed via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by ABCB1 gene. The influence of CYP3A5*3 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus has been well characterized. On the other hand, the contribution of polymorphisms in other genes is controversial. In addition, the involvement of other efflux transporters than P-gp in tacrolimus disposition is uncertain. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3As and efflux transporters on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 500 blood concentrations of tacrolimus from 102 adult stable kidney transplant recipients were included in the analyses. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were determined. In addition, the genes of efflux transporters including P-gp (ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2/ABCC2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) were genotyped. For ABCC2 gene, haplotypes were determined as follows: H1 (wild type), H2 (1249G>A), H9 (3972C>T) and H12 (-24C>T and 3972C>T). Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. RESULTS: Analyses revealed that the CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 carriers) and MRP2 high-activity group (ABCC2 H2/H2 and H1/H2) showed a decreased dose-normalized trough concentration of tacrolimus by 2.3-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.5-fold (p = 0.007), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus were best described using a two-compartment model with first order absorption and an absorption lag time. In the population pharmacokinetic analysis, CYP3A5 expressers and MRP2 high-activity groups were identified as the significant covariates for tacrolimus apparent clearance expressed as 20.7 × (age/50)(-0.78) × 2.03 (CYP3A5 expressers) × 1.40 (MRP2 high-activity group). No other CYP3A4, ABCB1 or ABCG2 polymorphisms were associated with the apparent clearance of tacrolimus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report showing that MRP2/ABCC2 has a crucial impact on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in a haplotype-specific manner. Determination of the ABCC2 as well as CYP3A5 genotype may be useful for more accurate tacrolimus dosage adjustment.
Abstract: This article reviews in vitro metabolic and in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions of nine antifungal agents: six azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin). In in vitro interaction studies, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole were found to have higher inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 activities than the other azoles or echinocandins did. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were relatively less potent inhibitors of CYP3A5 than of CYP3A4. The inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole against CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 seemed to be correlated with their dissociation constants for CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase) from Candida albicans. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, itraconazole was found to be a potent clinically important inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 substrates, and fluconazole and voriconazole increased the blood/plasma concentrations of not only CYP3A4/5 substrates but also CYP2C9 substrates. Miconazole was a potent inhibitor of all P450s investigated in vitro, although there are few detailed studies on the clinical significance of this except for CYP2C9. For the echinocandins, no marked inhibition of P450 activities, except for some inhibition of CYP3A4/5 activity, was observed in vitro. The blood/plasma concentrations of concomitant drugs were not markedly affected by coadministration of echinocandins in vivo, suggesting that echinocandins do not cause clinically significant interactions with drugs that are metabolized by P450s via the inhibition of metabolism. The differential effects of these antifungal agents on P450 activities must be considered when clinicians select antifungal agents for patients also receiving other drugs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver transplantation. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with cyclosporine and tacrolimus hindered the use of first-generation protease inhibitors in transplant recipients. The current study investigated DDIs between daclatasvir-a pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitor with clinical efficacy in multiple regimens (including all-oral)-and cyclosporine or tacrolimus in healthy subjects. METHODS: Healthy fasted subjects (aged 18-49 years; body mass index 18-32 kg/m(2)) received single oral doses of cyclosporine 400 mg on days 1 and 9, and daclatasvir 60 mg once daily on days 4-11 (group 1, n = 14), or a single oral dose of tacrolimus 5 mg on days 1 and 13, and daclatasvir 60 mg once daily on days 8-19 (group 2, n = 14). Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis [by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] were collected on days 1 and 9 for cyclosporine (72 h), on days 1 and 13 for tacrolimus (168 h) and on days 8 and 9 (group 1) or on days 12 and 13 (group 2) for daclatasvir (24 h). Plasma concentrations were determined by validated LC-MS/MS methods. RESULTS: Daclatasvir did not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of cyclosporine or tacrolimus, and tacrolimus did not affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of daclatasvir. Co-administration of cyclosporine resulted in a 40 % increase in the area under the concentration-time curve of daclatasvir but did not affect its maximum observed concentration. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these observations in healthy subjects, no clinically relevant DDIs between daclatasvir and cyclosporine or tacrolimus are anticipated in liver transplant recipients infected with HCV; dose adjustments during co-administration are unlikely to be required.
Abstract: This report summarizes phase 1 studies that evaluated pharmacokinetic interactions between the novel triazole antifungal agent isavuconazole and the immunosuppressants cyclosporine, mycophenolic acid, prednisolone, sirolimus, and tacrolimus in healthy adults. Healthy subjects received single oral doses of cyclosporine (300 mg; n = 24), mycophenolate mofetil (1000 mg; n = 24), prednisone (20 mg; n = 21), sirolimus (2 mg; n = 22), and tacrolimus (5 mg; n = 24) in the presence and absence of clinical doses of oral isavuconazole (200 mg 3 times daily for 2 days; 200 mg once daily thereafter). Coadministration with isavuconazole increased the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of tacrolimus, sirolimus, and cyclosporine by 125%, 84%, and 29%, respectively, and the AUCs of mycophenolic acid and prednisolone by 35% and 8%, respectively. Maximum concentrations (C) of tacrolimus, sirolimus, and cyclosporine were 42%, 65%, and 6% higher, respectively; Cof mycophenolic acid and prednisolone were 11% and 4% lower, respectively. Isavuconazole pharmacokinetics were mostly unaffected by the immunosuppressants. Two subjects experienced elevated creatinine levels in the cyclosporine study; most adverse events were not considered to be of clinical concern. These results indicate that isavuconazole is an inhibitor of cyclosporine, mycophenolic acid, sirolimus, and tacrolimus metabolism.
Abstract: All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the metabolism occurs. However, the circulatory system of the liver has a complex hierarchical geometry which distributes xenobiotics throughout the organ. Nevertheless, the lobule (liver unit), located at the end of each branch, is composed of many sinusoids where the blood flow can vary and therefore creates heterogeneity (e.g. drug concentration, enzyme level). A liver model was constructed by describing the geometry of a lobule, where the blood velocity increases toward the central vein, and by modeling the exchange mechanisms between the blood and hepatocytes. Moreover, the three major DDI mechanisms of metabolic enzymes; competitive inhibition, mechanism based inhibition and induction, were accounted for with an undefined number of drugs and/or enzymes. The liver model was incorporated into a physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and simulations produced, that in turn were compared to ten clinical results. The liver model generated a hierarchy of 5 sinusoidal levels and estimated a blood volume of 283 mL and a cell density of 193 × 106 cells/g in the liver. The overall PBPK model predicted the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and the magnitude of the clinical DDI with perpetrator drug(s) including spatial and temporal enzyme levels changes. The model presented herein may reduce costs and the use of laboratory animals and give the opportunity to explore different clinical scenarios, which reduce the risk of adverse events, prior to costly human clinical studies.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: A biowaiver is accepted by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) for immediate-release solid oral products containing Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class I drugs showing rapid drug dissolution. This study aimed to simulate plasma concentrations of fluconazole capsules with different dissolution profiles and run population simulation to evaluate their bioequivalence. The dissolution profiles of two batches of the reference product Zoltec150 mg capsules, A1 and A2, and two batches of other products (B1 and B2; C1 and C2), as well as plasma concentration-time data of the reference product from the literature, were used for the simulations. Although products C1 and C2 had drug dissolutions < 85% in 30 min at 0.1 M HCl, simulation results demonstrated that these products would show the same in vivo performance as products A1, A2, B1, and B2. Population simulation results of the ln-transformed 90% confidence interval for the ratio ofand AUCvalues for all products were within the 80-125% interval, showing to be bioequivalent. Thus, even though the in vitro dissolution behavior of products C1 and C2 was not equivalent to a rapid dissolution profile, the computer simulations proved to be an important tool to show the possibility of bioequivalence for these products.