Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Si raccomanda il monitoraggio della voriconazolo e diazepam.
Concentrazioni elevate di diazepam - sedazione aumentata / prolungataMeccanismo: il diazepam viene metabolizzato a livello epatico tramite gli isoenzimi CYP CYP3A4 e CYP2C19.
Effetto: l'effetto del diazepam può essere rafforzato e prolungato inibendo la degradazione. In uno studio su 12 volontari sani, l'assunzione della combinazione è stata associata ad un aumento di 2,2 volte dell'AUC del diazepam e ad un aumento di 2 volte dell'emivita del diazepam. L'aumentata esposizione al diazepam può essere associata ad un aumento delle reazioni avverse (ad es. Sonnolenza, vertigini).
Misure: monitorare clinicamente la tollerabilità (ad es. Aumento della sedazione, vertigini), selezionare una dose di diazepam inferiore se necessario. Le benzodiazepine alternative possono essere lorazepam o oxazepam, che non sono metabolizzate dagli enzimi CYP.
Si raccomanda il monitoraggio della venlafaxina e diazepam.
Effetti di smorzamento centrale aumentatiMeccanismo: entrambe le sostanze hanno un effetto depressivo sul SNC. Nessuna evidenza di interazioni farmacocinetiche rilevanti.
Effetto: Possibile rafforzamento reciproco degli effetti di smorzamento centrale come sedazione e ridotta vigilanza. Sono state segnalate convulsioni durante la venlafaxina. Ciò è particolarmente importante nei pazienti che usano benzodiazepine per trattare l'epilessia.
Misure: prestare attenzione all'aumento dei sintomi depressivi centrali, se necessario ridurre la dose.
|Voriconazolo||1 [0.74,2.64] 1||1||1|
|Diazepam||2.24 [1.54,2.74] 1||2.24||1|
|Venlafaxina||1.26 [0.48,11.27] 1,2||1.26||1|
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. L'esposizione alla diazepam è aumentata del 224%, quando è co-somministrata con la voriconazolo (224%) e la venlafaxina (100%). L' AUC è compreso tra lo 154% e il 274% in base al
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La voriconazolo ha un elevata biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 88%, perciò nel corso di un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 6 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 58% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 90 litri, Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2C19, CYP2C9 e CYP3A4..
La diazepam ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 76%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 36 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 144 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è forte al 97% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 83 litri. Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2B6, CYP2C19 e CYP3A4..
La venlafaxina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 45%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 5.2 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 27% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 236 litri, per cui, con un significativo tasso di estrazione epatico dello 0.42, hanno importanza sia il flusso ematico a livello del fegato [Q] sia le variazioni di legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb]. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2C19, CYP2D6 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori PGP e TRA8X8.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||2||Ø||Ø||++|
Avvertenze: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre particolare attenzione ai sintomi causati da una sovrastimolazione serotoninergica, soprattutto se viene aumentato il dosaggio del farmaco e/o si supera l'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La venlafaxina modula il sistema serotoninegico in modo limitato. Il rischio di sindrome serotoninergica è basso se viene rispettato il corretto dosaggio. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la voriconazolo né la diazepam potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+||Ø|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Diazepam possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la voriconazolo né la venlafaxina causano un aumento dell'attività anticolinergica.
Intervallo QT lungo
Valutazione: La co-somministrazione di voriconazolo e venlafaxina potrebbe causare tachicardia ventricolare a torsione di punta. Non è noto se la diazepam sia potenzialmente in grado di prolungare l'intervallo QT
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||vor||dia||ven|
|Visione offuscata||29.7 %||26.0||n.a.||5.0|
|Dolore addominale||12.0 %||12.0||n.a.||n.a.|
Ipopotassiemia (11%): voriconazolo
Eiaculazione anormale (10.6%): venlafaxina
Disfunzione erettile (4%): venlafaxina
Disturbo dell'orgasmo (3.5%): venlafaxina
Trombocitopenia (10%): voriconazolo
Tempo di sanguinamento prolungato: venlafaxina
Dispnea (10%): voriconazolo
Depressione respiratoria: diazepam
Allucinazioni (9.5%): voriconazolo
Effetto hangover: diazepam
Effetto rimbalzo: diazepam
Ipertensione (8%): venlafaxina
Edema periferico (1.9%): voriconazolo
Ipotensione ortostatica: venlafaxina
Eruzione cutanea (7.9%): diazepam, voriconazolo
Eritema multiforme (1.9%): voriconazolo
Melanoma maligno (1.9%): voriconazolo
Carcinoma spinocellulare (1.9%): voriconazolo
Sindrome di Stevens Johnson (1.9%): voriconazolo
Necrolisi epidermica tossica (1.9%): voriconazolo
Fotofobia (6%): voriconazolo
Neurite ottica: voriconazolo
Febbre (5.7%): voriconazolo
Tremore (5.6%): venlafaxina
Mal di testa (3%): voriconazolo
Disturbo da sogno: venlafaxina
Convulsioni: diazepam, venlafaxina
Sindrome neurolettica maligna: venlafaxina
Epatite colestatica (4.9%): voriconazolo
Epatotossicità (1.9%): voriconazolo
Ittero (1.9%): voriconazolo
Insufficienza epatica (1.9%): voriconazolo
Vomito (4.4%): voriconazolo
Diarrea (1.9%): voriconazolo
Perdita di appetito: venlafaxina
Emorragia gastrointestinale: venlafaxina
Reazioni allergiche della pelle: venlafaxina
Ritenzione urinaria: venlafaxina
Insufficienza renale: voriconazolo
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: The effects of steady state dosing with omeprazole and cimetidine on plasma diazepam levels have been studied in 12 healthy males. Single doses of diazepam (0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) were administered after one week of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cimetidine 400 mg b.d. or placebo, and the treatment was continued for a further 5 days. Blood was collected for 120 h after the dose of diazepam for the measurement of diazepam and its major metabolite desmethyl diazepam. The mean clearance of diazepam was decreased by 27% and 38% and its half-life was increased by 36% and 39% after omeprazole and cimetidine, respectively. Neither drug had any apparent effect on the volume of distribution of diazepam. Desmethyldiazepam appeared more slowly after both omeprazole and cimetidine. It is concluded that the decrease in diazepam clearance was associated with inhibition of hepatic metabolism both by omeprazole and cimetidine. However, since diazepam has a wide therapeutic range, it is unlikely that concomitant treatment with therapeutically recommended doses of either omeprazole or cimetidine will result in a clinically significant interaction with diazepam.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: 1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h.
Abstract: Metabolism of diazepam (DZP) was studied in vitro to clarify the involvement of different forms of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rats, and humans of Japanese and Caucasian origin. Microsomal 3-hydroxylation was the major pathway of DZP metabolism in rats and was inhibited by anti-CYP3A antibodies. Purified CYP3As and CYP2C11 catalysed 3-hydroxylation and N-demethylation, respectively, in the reconstituted systems. The rates of both reactions in human liver microsomes depended on the substrate concentration: the rate of 3-hydroxylation was 3-4 times higher than N-demethylation at 0.2 mM; the two activities were essentially the same at a lower substrate concentration (0.02 mM). Inhibitions of the N-demethylation by anti-CYP2C antibody and S-mephenytoin also depended on the substrate concentration and was detectable only at a low substrate concentration. Kinetic studies revealed the presence of two distinct catalytic activities for the N-demethylation; low Km and low Vmax, and high Km and high Vmax. The former activity seems to be mediated by a CYP2C P450 form. On the other hand, DZP 3-hydroxylation was rather selectively catalysed by a CYP3A P450 at the low and high substrate concentrations. These results were consistent with the observation in vivo that DZP N-demethylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation are closely correlated in humans. These results also suggest that the apparent discrepancy on the role of CYP forms in DZP metabolism in vitro and in vivo may reside in the difference in substrate concentration.
Abstract: The effects of pretreatment with a seven day course of ciprofloxacin on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an intravenous (5 mg) dose of diazepam were investigated in a group of 12 healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Ciprofloxacin pretreatment significantly reduced diazepam CL (without ciprofloxacin: 19.5 ml.h-1 kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 12.3 ml.h-1 kg-1). Diazepam t1/2 was also prolonged (without ciprofloxacin: 36.7 h; with ciprofloxacin: 71.1 h), but volume of distribution was unaltered (without ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1; with ciprofloxacin: 1.1 l.kg-1). However, no significant changes were detected in psychometric tests of digit symbol substitution, tapping rate and short memory, as well as levels of concentration, vigilance and tension measured by visual analogue scales.
Abstract: 1. We have examined the metabolism of diazepam by ten human cytochrome P450 forms (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5) expressed in HepG2 cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. 2. Among the P450 forms tested, diazepam was significantly demethylated by CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4 and 3A5, with 2C19 exhibiting the highest rate at concentrations < 0.1 mM, and hydroxylated only by the latter three enzymes, with 3A5 being the most active. The N-demethylation activity of diazepam by 2C19 at a concentration of 20 microM was six times of that by 3A4. However, that by 2C9 was detected at only a trace level. 3. CYP2C19, 3A4 and 3A5 of the ten human P450s catalysed the 3-hydroxylation of nordiazepam, and 2B6, the 2C subfamily and the 3A subfamily catalysed the N-demethylation of temazepam. CYP3A4 exhibited the highest activity of nordiazepam 3-hydroxylation and temazepam N-demethylation. 4. Diazepam N-demethylation by human liver microsomes correlated with diazepam 3-hydroxylation, but not S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation. 5. Our results suggest that in the human liver, the metabolism of diazepam to nordiazepam is mediated by CYP3A4, which has been reported as the most abundant P450 form in human liver as well as 2C19, which has been reported as a polymorphic enzyme.
Abstract: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of serotonergic drug therapy. Usually, serotonin syndrome occurs with the concomitant use of two serotonergic drugs; this case report describes a patient with a classic presentation of serotonin syndrome induced solely by a venlafaxine overdose. Emergency physicians need to be aware that the serotonin syndrome may occur not only with serotonergic drug combinations but also with overdoses of a single potent serotonergic agent such as venlafaxine.
Abstract: The influence of cimetidine on the disposition pharmacokinetics of the antidepressant drug, venlafaxine, and its active metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, was examined in 18 healthy young men and women. The steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine were evaluated during a 24-hour period after 5 days of treatment with venlafaxine (50 mg three times a day) and during a second 24-hour period after 5 days of combination treatment with venlafaxine (50 mg three times a day) and cimetidine (800 mg once a day). The apparent oral clearance of venlafaxine decreased significantly in the presence of cimetidine and the average steady-state plasma concentration of venlafaxine increased significantly in the presence of cimetidine, but there were no changes in the corresponding concentrations of the active metabolite. However, O-desmethylvenlafaxine exhibits pharmacologic activity that is approximately equimolar to that of venlafaxine, and the sum of venlafaxine plus O-desmethylvenlafaxine plasma concentrations was increased by an average of only 13%. Therefore, the effect of cimetidine coadministration is not expected to result in clinically important alterations in the response to venlafaxine in patients with depression. This may not be true, however, for patients with compromised hepatic metabolic function.
Abstract: (R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans. The aim of the present study was to identify UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms mediating R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation in human liver, with the long term objective of elucidating the molecular genetic basis for this drug metabolism polymorphism. All available recombinant UGT isoforms were screened for R- and S-oxazepam glucuronidation activities. Enzyme kinetic parameters were then determined in representative human liver microsomes (HLMs) and in UGTs that showed significant activity. Of 12 different UGTs evaluated, only UGT2B15 showed significant S-oxazepam glucuronidation. Furthermore, the apparent K(m) for UGT2B15 (29-35 microM) was similar to values determined for HLMs (43-60 microM). In contrast, R-oxazepam was glucuronidated by UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. Although apparent K(m) values for HLMs (256-303 microM) were most similar to UGT2B7 (333 microM) rather than UGT1A9 (12 microM), intrinsic clearance values for UGT1A9 were 10 times higher than for UGT2B7. A common genetic variation results in aspartate (UGT2B15*1) or tyrosine (UGT2B15*2) at position 85 of the UGT2B15 protein. Microsomes from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells overexpressing UGT2B15*1 showed 5 times higher S-oxazepam glucuronidation activity than did UGT2B15*2 microsomes. Similar results were obtained for other substrates, including eugenol, naringenin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and androstane-3alpha-diol. In conclusion, S-oxazepam is stereoselectively glucuronidated by UGT2B15, whereas R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by multiple UGT isoforms. Allelic variation associated with the UGT2B15 gene may explain polymorphic S-oxazepam glucuronidation in humans.
Abstract: CYP2D6 is involved in the O-demethylation metabolic pathway of venlafaxine in humans. In this study, we investigated whether this isozyme is stereoselective. Plasma samples from seven CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs) and five CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs), collected during a period without and with coadministration of quinidine, were analysed. Subjects were administered venlafaxine hydrochloride 18.75 mg orally every 12 h for 48 h on two occasions (1 week apart); once alone and once during the concomitant administration of quinidine sulphate every 12 h. Blood and urine samples were collected under steady-state conditions over one dosing interval (12 h). The present results show that, although CYP2D6 catalyses the O-demethylation of both enantiomers of venlafaxine, it displays a marked stereoselectivity towards the (R)-enantiomer. The oral clearance of (R)-venlafaxine was found to be nine-fold higher in EMs compared to PMs [median (range) 173 (29-611) l/h versus 20 (16-24) l/h, P < 0.005], while it was two-fold higher for (S)-venlafaxine [73 (32-130) l/h versus 37 (21-44) l/h, P < 0.05]. In EMs, quinidine decreased (R)- and (S)-venlafaxine oral clearance by 12-fold ( 0.05) and four-fold ( 0.05), respectively. In contrast, quinidine did not have any effects on renal clearance of (R)-venlafaxine [4 (2-10) l/h for venlafaxine alone versus 5 (0.6-7) l/h for venlafaxine + quinidine] and of (S)-venlafaxine [4 (1-7) l/h for venlafaxine alone versus 3 (0.4-6) l/h for venlafaxine + quinidine]. The coadministration of quinidine to EMs resulted in an almost complete inhibition of the partial metabolic clearance of (R)-venlafaxine to O-demethylated metabolites [127 (10-493) l/h down to 1 (0.1-3) l/h, 0.05], while a seven-fold reduction was measured for (S)-venlafaxine [47 (14-94) l/h versus 7 (1-19) l/h, 0.05]. In PMs, coadministration of quinidine did not significantly change oral clearance and partial metabolic clearance of (R)- and (S)-venlafaxine to its various metabolites. In contrast, data obtained on the partial metabolic clearance of (R)- and (S)-venlafaxine to N-demethylated metabolites, a reaction which is mediated by CYP3A4, suggest a lack of stereoselectivity of this enzyme.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with serotonin syndrome induced by low-dose venlafaxine. CASE SUMMARY: A 29-year-old Taiwanese woman with major depressive disorder abruptly developed serotonin syndrome during low-dose (37.5 mg/d) venlafaxine monotherapy, with symptoms of restlessness, tremor, shivering, diarrhea, vomiting, ataxia, tachycardia, and myoclonus. The patient recovered in 2 hours after receiving prochlorperazine and lorazepam in the emergency department. Venlafaxine was discontinued, and she was discharged home. Two weeks later, the patient started to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/d and reported no adverse adverse effects during follow-up clinic visits. DISCUSSION: The clinical manifestations of this case meet Sternbach's criteria of serotonin syndrome. Its possible etiologic factors include panic attack, adverse drug reaction, pharmacodynamic interaction, and congenital absence of CYP2D6 enzyme activity. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable causality of venlafaxine treatment and serotonin syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the risk of serotonin syndrome when the patient receives not only a combination of 2 antidepressants, but also the single potent serotonergic agent venlafaxine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of CYP3A4 inhibition by ketoconazole on the disposition of venlafaxine in individuals with different CYP2D6 pheno- and genotypes. METHODS: In an open two-phase study, 21 healthy volunteers with known CYP2D6 pheno- and genotype [14 extensive metabolisers (EMs), 7 poor metabolisers (PMs)] were given a single oral dose of venlafaxine (50 mg to EMs and 25 mg to PMs). Plasma and urine levels of venlafaxine and its three metabolites were measured and the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine were determined. After a 2-week washout period, subjects were treated for 2 days with ketoconazole (100 mg twice daily) starting 1 day before the administration of venlafaxine; and the same parameters as for the administration of venlafaxine only were measured. RESULTS: Data were evaluated from 20 subjects (14 EMs and 6 PMs) who completed the study. The dose-corrected AUC of venlafaxine was on average 2.3 times higher ( P<0.01) and that of its active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine 3.4 times lower ( P<0.0001) in PMs than EMs. There was a good correlation between the debrisoquine metabolic ratio and the ratio between the AUC of venlafaxine and that of O-desmethylvenlafaxine ( Rs=0.93, P<0.002). The majority of subjects showed higher plasma levels of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine upon co-administration of ketoconazole. AUC of venlafaxine significantly increased by 36% and that of O-desmethylvenlafaxine by 26% ( P<0.01). C(max) values increased by 32% and 18%, respectively. The elimination half-life of venlafaxine was unaltered. Three of the PMs displayed marked increases in AUC (81, 126 and 206%) and C(max) (60, 72, 119%) of venlafaxine while the other three showed small or no changes. CONCLUSIONS: Ketoconazole consistently affected the disposition of venlafaxine in EMs of debrisoquine while the response in PMs was erratic. The precise mechanisms underlying this interaction remain to be elucidated.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is important to consider when concentrations in whole blood (eg, in forensic toxicology) are compared with therapeutic and toxic concentrations based on the analysis of plasma or serum. The plasma to whole blood distribution of diazepam (D) and its major metabolite nordiazepam (ND) was investigated under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Studies in vitro were done by spiking whole blood with D and ND to give concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 microg/g. Venous blood was also obtained from hospital blood donors (n = 66) after informed consent. The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and water content of blood specimens were determined by routine procedures before D and ND were added to produce target concentrations of approximately 0.5 microg/g for each substance. The ex vivo work was done with blood specimens from hospital outpatients who were being medicated with D. Concentrations of D and ND were determined in body fluids by capillary column gas chromatography after adding prazepam as internal standard and solvent extraction with butyl acetate. The method limit of quantitation was 0.03 microg/g for both D and ND. The concentrations of D and ND were highest in plasma and lowest in erythrocytes. The plasma/blood (P/B) distribution ratios did not depend on drug concentration between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/g. The mean P/B ratios were 1.79:1 for D and 1.69:1 for ND when hematocrit was 45%. Furthermore, the P/B ratio for D (y) was positively correlated with blood hematocrit (x) and the regression equation was y = 0.636 + 0.025x (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). A similar strong association was found between the P/B ratio and hematocrit for ND (r = 0.79). P/B ratios of D and ND, blood hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the water content differed between sexes (P < 0.001). The overall mean P/B ratios for D and ND were 1.69 +/- 0.097 (+/- SD) and 1.62 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.001, n = 66) respectively when the mean hematocrit was 42.9 +/- 3.4 (+/- SD). For forensic purposes, it would be better to forgo making any conversion of a drug concentration measured in whole blood to that expected in plasma or serum; instead, therapeutic and toxic concentrations should be established for the actual specimens received.
Abstract: The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported.
Abstract: The effects of five antifungal drugs, fluconazole, itraconazole, micafungin, miconazole, and voriconazole, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9-mediated tolbutamide hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, and CYP3A4-mediated nifedipine oxidation activities in human liver microsomes were compared. In addition, the effects of preincubation were estimated to investigate the mechanism-based inhibition. The IC50 value against tolbutamide hydroxylation was the lowest for miconazole (2.0 microM), followed by voriconazole (8.4 microM) and fluconazole (30.3 microM). Similarly, the IC50 value against S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation was the lowest for miconazole (0.33 microM), followed by voriconazole (8.7 microM) and fluconazole (12.3 microM). On the other hand, micafungin at a concentration of 10 or 25 microM neither inhibited nor stimulated tolbutamide hydroxylation and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, and the IC50 values for itraconazole against these were greater than 10 microM. These results suggest that miconazole is the strongest inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, followed by voriconazole and fluconazole, whereas micafungin would not cause clinically significant interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP2C9 or CYP2C19 via the inhibition of metabolism. The IC50 value of voriconazole against nifedipine oxidation was comparable with that of fluconazole and micafungin and higher than that of itraconazole and miconazole. The stimulation of the inhibition of CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, or CYP3A4-mediated reactions by 15-min preincubation was not observed for any of the antifungal drugs, suggesting that these drugs are not mechanism-based inhibitors.
Abstract: This review presents the published clinical pharmacokinetic data for the antifungal agent voriconazole. Aspects regarding absorption, tissue distribution, elimination and kinetic interactions are also discussed.
Abstract: Voriconazole is the first available second-generation triazole with potent activity against a broad spectrum of clinically significant fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus,Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, and some less common moulds. Voriconazole is rapidly absorbed within 2 hours after oral administration and the oral bioavailability is over 90%, thus allowing switching between oral and intravenous formulations when clinically appropriate. Voriconazole shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics due to its capacity-limited elimination, and its pharmacokinetics are therefore dependent upon the administered dose. With increasing dose, voriconazole shows a superproportional increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). In doses used in children (age < 12 years) voriconazole pharmacokinetics appear to be linear. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached approximately 5 days after both intravenous and oral administration; however, steady state is reached within 24 hours with voriconazole administered as an intravenous loading dose. The volume of distribution of voriconazole is 2-4.6 L/kg, suggesting extensive distribution into extracellular and intracellular compartments. Voriconazole was measured in tissue samples of brain, liver, kidney, heart, lung as well as cerebrospinal fluid. The plasma protein binding is about 60% and independent of dose or plasma concentrations. Clearance is hepatic via N-oxidation by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. The elimination half-life of voriconazole is approximately 6 hours, and approximately 80% of the total dose is recovered in the urine, almost completely as metabolites. As with other azole drugs, the potential for drug interactions is considerable. Voriconazole shows time-dependent fungistatic activity against Candida species and time-dependent slow fungicidal activity against Aspergillus species. A short post-antifungal effect of voriconazole is evident only for Aspergillus species. The predictive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter for voriconazole treatment efficacy in Candida infections is the free drug AUC from 0 to 24 hour : minimum inhibitory concentration ratio.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: We describe 2 patients who developed prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram while being treated with voriconazole. The first patient had undergone induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia, and her course had been complicated by invasive aspergillosis and an acute cardiomyopathy. She developed torsades de pointes 3 weeks after starting voriconazole therapy. She was re-challenged with voriconazole without recurrent QTc prolongation or cardiac dysfunction. The second patient had a significantly prolonged QTc interval while on voriconazole therapy. We recommend careful monitoring for QTc prolongation and arrhythmia in patients who are receiving voriconazole, particularly those who have significant electrolyte disturbances, are on concomitant QT prolonging medications, have heart failure such as from a dilated cardiomyopathy, or have recently received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The potential for synergistic cardiotoxicity must be carefully considered.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of voriconazole and fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers took 5 mg of oral diazepam in a randomised order on three study sessions: without pretreatment, after oral voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily on the second day, or after oral fluconazole 400 mg on the first day and 200 mg on the second day. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam were determined for up to 48 h. Pharmacodynamic variables were measured for 12 h. RESULTS: In the voriconazole phase, the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC 0-infinity) of diazepam was increased (geometric mean ratio) 2.2-fold (p < 0.05; 90% confidence interval [CI] 1.56 to 2.82). This was associated with the prolongation of the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from 31 h to 61 h (p < 0.01) after voriconazole. In the fluconazole phase, the AUC 0-infinity of diazepam was increased 2.5-fold (p < 0.01; 90% CI 1.94 to 3.40), and the t(1/2) was prolonged from 31 h to 73 h (p < 0.001). The peak plasma concentration of diazepam was practically unchanged by voriconazole and fluconazole. The pharmacodynamics of diazepam were changed only modestly. CONCLUSION: Both voriconazole and fluconazole considerably increase the exposure to diazepam. Recurrent administration of diazepam increases the risk of clinically significant interactions during voriconazole or fluconazole treatment, because the elimination of diazepam is impaired significantly.
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of terbinafine and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine in healthy volunteers. Plasma concentrations of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) were measured after ingestion of 75 mg venlafaxine without pretreatment (control), after terbinafine pretreatment, or after voriconazole pretreatment. During the terbinafine phase, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of venlafaxine was on average 490% (P<0.001) and that of ODV 57% (P<0.001) of the corresponding control value. Terbinafine decreased the AUC(0-infinity) ratio of ODV over venlafaxine by 82% (P<0.001). Voriconazole slightly increased the sum of AUC(0-infinity) of venlafaxine plus AUC(0-infinity) of ODV (active moiety) by 31% (P<0.001). The most likely mechanism for the interaction between terbinafine and venlafaxine is the inhibition of CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation of venlafaxine, whereas the minor effects of voriconazole are probably due to the inhibition of CYP3A4-, CYP2C9-, or CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of venlafaxine.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: Voriconazole is an effective antifungal drug, but adverse drug-drug interactions associated with its use are of major clinical concern. To identify the mechanisms of these interactions, we tested the inhibitory potency of voriconazole with eight human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Isoform-specific probes were incubated with human liver microsomes (HLMs) (or expressed CYPs) and cofactors in the absence and the presence of voriconazole. Preincubation experiments were performed to test mechanism-based inactivation. In pilot experiments, voriconazole showed inhibition of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A (half-maximal [50%] inhibitory concentrations, <6 microM); its effect on CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 was marginal (<25% inhibition at 100 microM voriconazole). Further detailed experiments with HLMs showed that voriconazole is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6 (K(i) < 0.5), CYP2C9 (K(i) = 2.79 microM), and CYP2C19 (K(i) = 5.1 microM). The inhibition of CYP3A by voriconazole was explained by noncompetitive (K(i) = 2.97 microM) and competitive (K(i) = 0.66 microM) modes of inhibition. Prediction of the in vivo interaction of voriconazole from these in vitro data suggests that voriconazole would substantially increase the exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A. Clinicians should be aware of these interactions and monitor patients for adverse effects or failure of therapy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although some of the aetiological factors are known, it is not yet known whether drugs with anticholinergic activity (AA) contribute to this cognitive decline. Such knowledge would provide opportunities to prevent acceleration of cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. They were reassessed 4 and 8 years later. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A detailed assessment of the AA of all drugs prescribed was made, and AA was classified according to a standardised scale. Relationships between cognitive decline and AA load and duration of treatment were assessed using bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: More than 40% used drugs with AA at baseline. During the 8-year follow-up, the cognitive decline was higher in those who had been taking AA drugs (median decline on MMSE 6.5 points) compared with those who had not taken such drugs (median decline 1 point; p=0.025). In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised beta=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised beta 0.231, p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an association between anticholinergic drug use and cognitive decline in PD. This may provide an important opportunity for clinicians to avoid increasing progression of cognitive decline by avoiding drugs with AA. Increased awareness by clinicians is required about the classes of drugs that have anticholinergic properties.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and the potential correlations between pharmacokinetic parameters and patient variables in liver transplant patients on a fixed-dose prophylactic regimen. Multiple blood samples were collected within one dosing interval from 15 patients who were initiated on a prophylactic regimen of voriconazole at 200 mg enterally (tablets) twice daily starting immediately posttransplant. Voriconazole plasma concentrations were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. The mean apparent systemic clearance over bioavailability (CL/F), apparent steady-state volume of distribution over bioavailability (Vss/F), and half-life (t1/2) were 5.8+/-5.5 liters/h, 94.5+/-54.9 liters, and 15.7+/-7.0 h, respectively. There was a good correlation between the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) and trough voriconazole plasma concentrations. t1/2, maximum drug concentration in plasma (Cmax), trough level, AUC0-infinity, area under the first moment of the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUMC0-infinity), and mean residence time from 0 h to infinity (MRT0-infinity) were significantly correlated with postoperative time. t1/2, lambda, AUC0-infinity, and CL/F were significantly correlated with indices of liver function (aspartate transaminase [AST], total bilirubin, and international normalized ratio [INR]). The Cmax, last concentration in plasma at 12 h (Clast), AUMC0-infinity, and MRT0-infinity were significantly lower in the presence of deficient CYP2C19*2 alleles. Donor characteristics had no significant correlation with any of the pharmacokinetic parameters estimated. A fixed dosing regimen of voriconazole results in a highly variable exposure of voriconazole in liver transplant patients. Given that trough voriconazole concentration is a good measure of drug exposure (AUC), the voriconazole dose can be individualized based on trough concentration measurements in liver transplant patients.
Abstract: The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The resulting conjugates from the coupling reactions with glucuronic acid are epimeric pairs of glucuronides. Due to the importance of stereochemical factors in drug disposition it is necessary to separate the diastereomeric forms after synthesis. An enzyme-assisted synthesis was developed and optimized by using microsomal UGT from fresh swine liver to receive multimilligram amounts of the benzodiazepine glucuronides, which were not accessible by standard synthetic procedures, like the Koenigs-Knorr- and Williamson-ether-synthesis. Swine liver microsomes were prepared by homogenization and differential centrifugation of liver tissue. In the presence of liver microsomes the benzodiazepines and cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 24h. After incubation the microsomes were removed by protein precipitation and the residual benzodiazepines by liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane). The epimeric pairs of benzodiazepine glucuronides were separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) to obtain the pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers. The synthesis products were characterized by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Many psychotropic drugs can delay cardiac repolarization and thereby prolong the rate-corrected QT interval (QTc). A prolonged QTc often arouses concern in clinical practice, as it can be followed, in rare cases, by the life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmia called torsade de pointes (TdP). METHOD: We searched PubMed for pertinent literature on the risk of QTc prolongation and/or TdP associated with commonly used psychotropic drugs. RESULTS: Thioridazine and ziprasidone confer the highest risk of QTc prolongation and/or TdP. There is also a clinically significant risk associated with haloperidol given intravenously in high doses. TdP has been reported in a few cases in association with the use of newer antipsychotic drugs (mainly quetiapine and amisulpride), most of the tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants, and the selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and venlafaxine. As a rule, however, QTc prolongation and/or TdP occur only in the presence of multiple additional risk factors, such as age over 65 years, pre-existing cardiovascular disease, bradycardia, female sex, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, a supratherapeutic or toxic serum concentration, or the simultaneous administration of other drugs that delay repolarization or interfere with drug metabolism. CONCLUSION: Before prescribing a psychotropic drug, the physician should carefully assess its risks and benefits to avoid this type of adverse reaction, particularly when additional risk factors are present. The ECG and electrolytes should be regularly monitored in patients taking psychotropic drugs.
Abstract: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family transporters accept a number of drugs and are increasingly being recognized as important factors in governing drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play an important role in hepatic drug uptake while OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 might be key players in intestinal absorption and transport across blood-brain barrier of drugs, respectively. To understand the importance of OATPs in the hepatic clearance of drugs, the rate-determining process for elimination should be considered; for some drugs, hepatic uptake clearance rather than metabolic intrinsic clearance is the more important determinant of hepatic clearances. The importance of the unbound concentration ratio (liver/blood), K(p,uu) , of drugs, which is partly governed by OATPs, is exemplified in interpreting the difference in the IC(50) of statins between the hepatocyte and microsome systems for the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity. The intrinsic activity and/or expression level of OATPs are affected by genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions. Their effects on the elimination rate or intestinal absorption rate of drugs may sometimes depend on the substrate drug. This is partly because of the different contribution of OATP isoforms to clearance or intestinal absorption. When the contribution of the OATP-mediated pathway is substantial, the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs should be greatly affected. This review describes the estimation of the contribution of OATP1B1 to the total hepatic uptake of drugs from the data of fold-increases in the plasma concentration of substrate drugs by the genetic polymorphism of this transporter. To understand the importance of the OATP family transporters, modeling and simulation with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model are helpful.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: This article reviews in vitro metabolic and in vivo pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions of nine antifungal agents: six azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin). In in vitro interaction studies, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole were found to have higher inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 activities than the other azoles or echinocandins did. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were relatively less potent inhibitors of CYP3A5 than of CYP3A4. The inhibitory effects of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole against CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 seemed to be correlated with their dissociation constants for CYP51 (lanosterol 14α-demethylase) from Candida albicans. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, itraconazole was found to be a potent clinically important inhibitor of CYP3A4/5 substrates, and fluconazole and voriconazole increased the blood/plasma concentrations of not only CYP3A4/5 substrates but also CYP2C9 substrates. Miconazole was a potent inhibitor of all P450s investigated in vitro, although there are few detailed studies on the clinical significance of this except for CYP2C9. For the echinocandins, no marked inhibition of P450 activities, except for some inhibition of CYP3A4/5 activity, was observed in vitro. The blood/plasma concentrations of concomitant drugs were not markedly affected by coadministration of echinocandins in vivo, suggesting that echinocandins do not cause clinically significant interactions with drugs that are metabolized by P450s via the inhibition of metabolism. The differential effects of these antifungal agents on P450 activities must be considered when clinicians select antifungal agents for patients also receiving other drugs.
Abstract: This is the second report of a patient developing severe prolongation of QTc interval with a dose of 300mg/day of venlafaxine; on stopping it, QTc reverted to normalcy. Venlafaxine was restarted and maintained at 150mg/day, with QTc interval remaining normal, indicating, that it has a dose-dependent effect on QTc interval. Venlafaxine was not changed as she had responded best to this drug compared to any other antidepressant. Over 20 years, the only time she had a period of 5 years of remission, was when she was on 75mg of venlafaxine/day.
Abstract: The potential of inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs to contribute to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is uncommon and underestimated. However, the occurrence of unexpected DDI suggests the potential contribution of metabolites to the observed DDI. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bupropion and its three primary metabolites-hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion-based on a mixed "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach and to contribute to the understanding of the involvement and impact of inhibitory metabolites for DDIs observed in the clinic. PK profiles from clinical researches of different dosages were used to verify the bupropion model. Reasonable PK profiles of bupropion and its metabolites were captured in the PBPK model. Confidence in the DDI prediction involving bupropion and co-administered CYP2D6 substrates could be maximized. The predicted maximum concentration (C) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values and Cand AUC ratios were consistent with clinically observed data. The addition of the inhibitory metabolites into the PBPK model resulted in a more accurate prediction of DDIs (AUC and Cratio) than that which only considered parent drug (bupropion) P450 inhibition. The simulation suggests that bupropion and its metabolites contribute to the DDI between bupropion and CYP2D6 substrates. The inhibitory potency from strong to weak is hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, erythrohydrobupropion, and bupropion, respectively. The present bupropion PBPK model can be useful for predicting inhibition from bupropion in other clinical studies. This study highlights the need for caution and dosage adjustment when combining bupropion with medications metabolized by CYP2D6. It also demonstrates the feasibility of applying the PBPK approach to predict the DDI potential of drugs undergoing complex metabolism, especially in the DDI involving inhibitory metabolites.
Abstract: The accurate estimation of "in vivo" inhibition constants () of inhibitors and fraction metabolized () of substrates is highly important for drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. We hypothesized that analysis of the pharmacokinetic alterations of substrate metabolites in addition to the parent drug would enable accurate estimation of in vivoandTwenty-four pharmacokinetic DDIs caused by P450 inhibition were analyzed with PBPK models using an emerging parameter estimation method, the cluster Newton method, which enables efficient estimation of a large number of parameters to describe the pharmacokinetics of parent and metabolized drugs. For each DDI, two analyses were conducted (with or without substrate metabolite data), and the parameter estimates were compared with each other. In 17 out of 24 cases, inclusion of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis improved the reliability of bothandImportantly, the estimatedfor the same inhibitor from different DDI studies was generally consistent, suggesting that the estimatedfrom one study can be reliably used for the prediction of untested DDI cases with different victim drugs. Furthermore, a large discrepancy was observed between the reported in vitroand the in vitro estimates for some inhibitors, and the current in vivoestimates might be used as reference values when optimizing in vitro-in vivo extrapolation strategies. These results demonstrated that better use of substrate metabolite information in PBPK analysis of clinical DDI data can improve reliability of top-down parameter estimation and prediction of untested DDIs.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.