Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
|Perdita di appetito|
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Non abbiamo ulteriori avvertenze per la co-somministrazione di digossina e dibenzepina. Si prega di consultare le informazioni specialistiche pertinenti.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla digossina, quando è co-somministrata con la dibenzepina (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla dibenzepina, quando è co-somministrata con la digossina (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La digossina ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 63%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto lunga in 58 ore e concentrazioni plasmatiche allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiungono dopo più di 232 ore. La finestra terapeutica è stretta e quindi il margine di sicurezza è piccolo. Anche piccoli cambiamenti nell'esposizione possono aumentare il rischio di tossicità. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è molto debole al 21.9% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 679 litri. Dato che il farmaco ha un basso tasso di estrazione epatico, lo spiazzamento del legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb] porta ad un aumento all'esposizione farmacologica. Circa il 60.0% della dose somministrata è escreta inalterata attraverso le urine e in seguito alle varie interazioni farmacologiche questo valore raramente cambia. Il metabolismo non avviene attraverso i tipici citocromi. e il trasporto attivo avviene parzialmente attraverso i trasportatori OATP4C1 e PGP.
La dibenzepina ha una bassa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale, perciò nel corso di un interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima (Cmax) tende fortemente a cambiare. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 5 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 80%. Il metabolismo non avviene attraverso i tipici citocromi. .
|Effetti serotoninergici a||0||Ø||Ø|
Valutazione: Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, né la digossina né la dibenzepina potenziano l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||2||+||+|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La digossina e la dibenzepina possiedono soltanto limitati effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali.
Intervallo QT lungo
Non è noto se la digossina e la dibenzepina siano in grado di prolungare l'intervallo QT
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||dig||dib|
|Aritmia ventricolare||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Perdita di appetito||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Mal di testa||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Visione a colori alterata||1.0 %||+||n.a.|
|Visione offuscata||0.0 %||0.01||n.a.|
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: The antimuscarinic potency of dibenzepin (Noveril) was estimated by measuring (a) central in vivo effects in mice (antihypothermia and antitremor, both induced by oxotremorine), (b) peripheral in vivo activity (mydriasis caused by systemic administration of the drug), (c) the effects of dibenzepin on isolated smooth muscle from guinea pig ileum, and (d) in vitro determination of the affinity constant of dibezepine toward the muscarinic binding sites in whole mouse-brain homogenate. The data allowed the construction of a normalized antimuscarinic potency scale for some of the common tricyclic antidepressants. With a value of 1 for scopolamine, the following relative anticholinergic potencies were calculated: dibenzepin--1/600, nortriptylne--1/300, imipramine - 1/200, and amitriptyline - 1/75. These values suggest an explanation for the absence of clinically detectable anticholinergic side effects during treatment of depression with high doses of dibenzepin. Structural and spatial interrelations among various tricyclic antidepressants and scopolamine are discussed.
Abstract: Amiodarone is known to raise serum digoxin levels. This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic basis of this interaction in 10 normal subjects. The pharmacokinetic variables for digoxin were determined after a 1.0 mg intravenous dose of digoxin in each subject, before and after oral amiodarone, 400 mg daily for 3 weeks. During amiodarone administration, systemic clearance of digoxin was reduced from 234 +/- 72 ml/min (mean +/- standard deviation) to 172 +/- 33 ml/min (p less than 0.01). This was due to reductions in both renal clearance (from 105 +/- 39 to 84 +/- 15 ml/min) (p less than 0.05) and nonrenal clearance (from 130 +/- 38 to 88 +/- 20 ml/min) (p less than 0.01). Digoxin half-life of elimination was prolonged from 34 +/- 13 to 40 +/- 16 hours (p less than 0.05). Digoxin volume of distribution was not significantly changed. Amiodarone caused a three- to fivefold increase in serum reverse triiodothyronine levels, but changes in thyroid function were not quantitatively related to the changes in digoxin pharmacokinetics. These alterations in digoxin pharmacokinetics produced by amiodarone explain the increase in serum digoxin level that has been observed when this drug combination has been used clinically.
Abstract: Recent data point to the contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to digoxin elimination. On the basis of clinical observations of patients in whom digoxin levels decreased considerably when treated with rifampin, we hypothesized that concomitant rifampin therapy may affect digoxin disposition in humans by induction of P-gp. We compared single-dose (1 mg oral and 1 mg intravenous) pharmacokinetics of digoxin before and after coadministration of rifampin (600 mg/d for 10 days) in 8 healthy volunteers. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from each volunteer before and after administration of rifampin. The area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) of oral digoxin was significantly lower during rifampin treatment; the effect was less pronounced after intravenous administration of digoxin. Renal clearance and half-life of digoxin were not altered by rifampin. Rifampin treatment increased intestinal P-gp content 3.5 +/- 2.1-fold, which correlated with the AUC after oral digoxin but not after intravenous digoxin. P-gp is a determinant of the disposition of digoxin. Concomitant administration of rifampin reduced digoxin plasma concentrations substantially after oral administration but to a lesser extent after intravenous administration. The rifampin-digoxin interaction appears to occur largely at the level of the intestine. Therefore, induction of intestinal P-gp could explain this new type of drug-drug interaction.
Abstract: Digoxin, which is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of heart failure, is mainly eliminated from the circulation by the kidney. P-glycoprotein is well characterized as a digoxin pump at the apical membrane of the nephron. However, little is known about the transport mechanism at the basolateral membrane. We have isolated an organic anion transporter (OATP4C1) from human kidney. Human OATP4C1 is the first member of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family expressed in human kidney. The isolated cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 724 aa with 12 transmembrane domains. The genomic organization consists of 13 exons located on chromosome 5q21. Its rat counterpart, Oatp4c1, is also isolated from rat kidney. Human OATP4C1 transports cardiac glycosides (digoxin, K(m) = 7.8 microM and ouabain, K(m) = 0.38 microM), thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, K(m) = 5.9 microM and thyroxine), cAMP, and methotrexate in a sodium-independent manner. Rat Oatp4c1 also transports digoxin (K(m) = 8.0 microM) and triiodothyronine (K(m) = 1.9 microM). Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that rat Oatp4c1 protein is localized at the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule cell in the kidney. These data suggest that human OATP4C1/rat Oatp4c1 might be a first step of the transport pathway of digoxin and various compounds into urine in the kidney.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden.
Abstract: The human organic anion and cation transporters are classified within two SLC superfamilies. Superfamily SLCO (formerly SLC21A) consists of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), while the organic anion transporters (OATs) and the organic cation transporters (OCTs) are classified in the SLC22A superfamily. Individual members of each superfamily are expressed in essentially every epithelium throughout the body, where they play a significant role in drug absorption, distribution and elimination. Substrates of OATPs are mainly large hydrophobic organic anions, while OATs transport smaller and more hydrophilic organic anions and OCTs transport organic cations. In addition to endogenous substrates, such as steroids, hormones and neurotransmitters, numerous drugs and other xenobiotics are transported by these proteins, including statins, antivirals, antibiotics and anticancer drugs. Expression of OATPs, OATs and OCTs can be regulated at the protein or transcriptional level and appears to vary within each family by both protein and tissue type. All three superfamilies consist of 12 transmembrane domain proteins that have intracellular termini. Although no crystal structures have yet been determined, combinations of homology modelling and mutation experiments have been used to explore the mechanism of substrate recognition and transport. Several polymorphisms identified in members of these superfamilies have been shown to affect pharmacokinetics of their drug substrates, confirming the importance of these drug transporters for efficient pharmacological therapy. This review, unlike other reviews that focus on a single transporter family, briefly summarizes the current knowledge of all the functionally characterized human organic anion and cation drug uptake transporters of the SLCO and the SLC22A superfamilies.
Abstract: Transporters in proximal renal tubules contribute to the disposition of numerous drugs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of tubular secretion have been progressively elucidated during the past decades. Organic anions tend to be secreted by the transport proteins OAT1, OAT3 and OATP4C1 on the basolateral side of tubular cells, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2, MRP4, OATP1A2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) on the apical side. Organic cations are secreted by organic cation transporter (OCT) 2 on the basolateral side, and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins MATE1, MATE2/2-K, P-glycoprotein, organic cation and carnitine transporter (OCTN) 1 and OCTN2 on the apical side. Significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may affect any of these transporters, altering the clearance and, consequently, the efficacy and/or toxicity of substrate drugs. Interactions at the level of basolateral transporters typically decrease the clearance of the victim drug, causing higher systemic exposure. Interactions at the apical level can also lower drug clearance, but may be associated with higher renal toxicity, due to intracellular accumulation. Whereas the importance of glomerular filtration in drug disposition is largely appreciated among clinicians, DDIs involving renal transporters are less well recognized. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles, quantitative importance and clinical relevance of these transporters in drug therapy. It proposes an approach based on substrate-inhibitor associations for predicting potential tubular-based DDIs and preventing their adverse consequences. We provide a comprehensive list of known drug interactions with renally-expressed transporters. While many of these interactions have limited clinical consequences, some involving high-risk drugs (e.g. methotrexate) definitely deserve the attention of prescribers.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.
Abstract: CONTEXT: Recommended doses of digoxin-specific antibody fragments (digoxin-Fab) for treatment of acute digoxin poisoning are pharmacokinetically unsubstantiated and theoretically excessive. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling creates clinical simulations which are closely related to physiological and pharmacokinetic behaviour. This paper details the formulation of a PBPK model of digoxin and explores its use as a simulation tool for acute digoxin toxicity and its management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PBPK model of digoxin was constructed and validated for acute digoxin poisoning management by comparing simulations with observed individual acute overdose patients. These simulations were compared with standard two-compartment PK model simulations. RESULTS: PBPK model simulations showed good agreement with post-absorption plasma concentrations of digoxin measured in 6 acute overdose patients. PBPK predictions were accurate to 1.5-fold or less of observed clinical values, proving to be more accurate than two-compartment simulations of the same patients which produced up to a 4.9-fold change. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional two-compartment modelling, PBPK modelling is superior in generating realistic simulations of acute digoxin toxicity and the response to digoxin-Fab. Simulation capacity provides realistic, continuous data which has the potential to substantiate alternative, less expensive, and safer digoxin-Fab dosing strategies for the treatment of acute digoxin toxicity.