Intervallo QT lungo
Reazione avversa da farmaco (ADR)
Varianti ✨Per l'analisi computazionale dettagliata delle varianti, si prega di selezionare l'abbonamento standard a pagamento.
Informazioni dei farmaci per i pazienti
Si raccomanda il monitoraggio della ossicodone e lorazepam.
Aumento della depressione del sistema nervoso centraleMeccanismo: la combinazione di ossicodone e benzodiazepine può portare a effetti additivi per quanto riguarda gli effetti depressivi sul SNC.
Effetto: l'effetto depressivo sul SNC dei due farmaci può essere intensificato. Ciò può aumentare il rischio di depressione respiratoria, calo della pressione sanguigna, sedazione o coma.
Misure: se la combinazione è necessaria, è necessario un attento monitoraggio del paziente, in particolare per quanto riguarda la sedazione, la depressione respiratoria e gli effetti ipotensivi. Devono essere utilizzate le dosi più basse possibili o deve essere considerata una riduzione della dose di uno o di entrambi i farmaci. A causa dell'effetto depressivo additivo sul SNC, la combinazione non è consigliabile, specialmente nei pazienti più anziani con polimorbidi.
I cambiamenti riportati in seguito all'esposizione corrispondono ai cambiamenti nell'area sottesa alla curva concentrazione plasmatica-tempo [ AUC ]. Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla lorazepam, quando è co-somministrata con la ossicodone (100%). Non ci aspettiamo nessun cambiamento nell'esposizione alla ossicodone, quando è co-somministrata con la lorazepam (100%).
I parametri farmacocinetici della popolazione media sono utilizzati come punto di partenza per calcolare i cambiamenti del singolo individuo esposto alle interazioni farmacologiche
La lorazepam ha un elevata biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 85%, perciò nel corso di un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è di 14.3 ore e la concentrazione allo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge dopo circa 57.2 ore. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è moderatamente forte al 91.9% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 111 litri. Il metabolismo non avviene attraverso i tipici citocromi. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori UGT2B7 e TRA8X8.
La ossicodone ha una significativa biodisponibilità [ F ] orale pari al 61%, perciò attraverso un'interazione farmacologica la concentrazione plasmatica massima [Cmax] tende a cambiare di poco. L'emivita [ t12 ] del farmaco è piuttosto breve in 3.7 ore e lo stato stazionario [Css] si raggiunge molto velocemente. Il legame proteico [ Pb ] è piuttosto debole al 41.5% e il volume di distribuzione [ Vd ] è molto grande in 241 litri, per cui, con un significativo tasso di estrazione epatico dello 0.38, hanno importanza sia il flusso ematico a livello del fegato [Q] sia le variazioni di legame alle proteine plasmatiche [Pb]. Tra l'altro, il metabolismo avviene rispettivamente attraverso gli enzimi CYP2D6 e CYP3A4. e il trasporto attivo avviene in particolare attraverso i trasportatori UGT2B7 e TRA8X8.
|Effetti serotoninergici a||1||Ø||+|
Avvertenze: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre particolare attenzione ai sintomi causati da una sovrastimolazione serotoninergica, soprattutto se viene aumentato il dosaggio del farmaco e/o si supera l'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: La ossicodone possiede lievi effetti sul sistema serotoninergico. Il rischio di sindrome serotoninergica è basso se viene rispettato il corretto dosaggio. Sulla base dei dati a nostra disposizione, la lorazepam non potenzia l'attività serotoninergica.
|Kiesel & Durán b||1||Ø||+|
Avvertenze e precauzioni: Per precauzione, si dovrebbe porre attenzione ai sintomi di tipo anticolinergico, soprattutto se il dosaggio è stato aumentato oppure se è al di sopra dell'intervallo terapeutico.
Valutazione: Somministrata unicamente, la Ossicodone possiede lievi effetti anticolinergici. Il rischio di sindrome anticolinergica è molto basso se si rispettano i dosaggi abituali. L'effetto anticolingerico della lorazepam non è rilevante.
Intervallo QT lungo
Non è noto se la lorazepam e la ossicodone siano in grado di prolungare l'intervallo QT
Effetti collaterali generali
|Effetti collaterali||∑ frequenza||lor||oss|
|Mal di testa||10.1 %||n.a.||10.1|
Effetto hangover: lorazepam
Effetto rimbalzo: lorazepam
Dipendenza: lorazepam, ossicodone
Perdita di appetito: ossicodone
Aumento della frequenza della minzione: ossicodone
Depressione respiratoria: lorazepam, ossicodone
Abbiamo valutato il rischio individuale di effetti indesiderati in base alle risposte fornite ed alle informazioni scientifiche disponibili. Le informazioni contenute nel sito hanno esclusivamente scopo informativo e non sostituiscono il parere del medico. Si accomanda pertanto di chiedere sempre il parere del proprio medico curante e/o di specialisti riguardo qualsiasi indicazione riportata. Nella versione alpha test, il rischio di tutti i farmaci non è stato ancora completamente valutato.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: 1. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone were studied in nine healthy young volunteers in a cross-over study. Each subject received oxycodone chloride once intramuscularly (0.14 mg kg-1) and twice orally (0.28 mg kg-1) at intervals of 2 weeks. A double-blind randomized pretreatment with amitriptyline (10-50 mg a day) or placebo was given prior to oral oxycodone. 2. The concentrations of oxycodone, noroxycodone and oxymorphone in plasma and the 24 h urine recoveries of their conjugated and unconjugated forms were measured by gas chromatography. 3. No differences were found between treatments in mean Cmax and AUC values of oxycodone which varied from 34 to 38 ng ml-1 and from 208 to 245 ng ml-1 h, respectively. The median tmax of oxycodone was 1 h in all groups. The bioavailability of oral relative to i.m. oxycodone was 60%. The mean renal clearance of oxycodone was 0.07-0.08 l min-1. The kinetics of oxycodone were unaffected by amitriptyline. 4. The mean ratio of the AUC(0.24 h) values of unconjugated noroxycodone to oxycodone was 0.45 after i.m. oxycodone and 0.6-0.8 after oral oxycodone. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were below the limit of the assay. Eight to 14% of the dose of oxycodone was excreted in the urine as unconjugated and conjugated oxycodone over 24 h. Oxymorphone was excreted mainly as a conjugate whereas noroxycodone was recovered mostly in an unconjugated form.
Abstract: Oxycodone chloride (0.07 mg kg-1) was given by intravenous bolus to nine young adult surgical patients on the first postoperative day. Plasma was sampled for up to 12 h. Mean values of t1/2z, CL and Vss were 222 min, 0.78 l min-1 and 2.60 l kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of the metabolite noroxycodone was also measured. The mean AUC(0,12) ratio of noroxycodone to oxycodone was 0.33. Oxymorphone was not detected.
Abstract: Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation.
Abstract: Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The efficacy and safety of graded doses (10, 20, and 30 mg) of controlled-release (CR) oxycodone was compared with that of immediate-release (IR) oxycodone (15 mg), immediate-release oxycodone 10 mg in combination with acetaminophen 650 mg (APAP), and placebo in a single-dose, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. The participants, 182 inpatients experiencing moderate to severe pain after abdominal or gynecologic surgery, provided hourly ratings of pain intensity and relief for 12 hours after administration. All active treatments were significantly superior to placebo for many hourly measurements and for the sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) and total pain relief (TOTPAR). A dose response was found among the three levels of CR oxycodone for pain relief and peak pain intensity difference (PID), with the 20- and 30-mg doses being significantly better than the 10-mg dose. For all active treatments, peak PID and peak pain relief occurred approximately 2 to 4 hours after administration. The median time to onset of relief was 32 minutes for oxycodone plus APAP, 41 minutes for IR oxycodone, and 46 minutes for CR oxycodone 30 mg. Duration of pain relief showed that the 10-, 20-, and 30-mg doses of CR oxycodone had durations of action of 10 to 12 hours compared with IR oxycodone and oxycodone plus APAP (both approximately 7 hours). Typical adverse events, particularly somnolence, occurred in all active treatment groups. Treatment with CR oxycodone was safe and effective in this study, and its characteristics will be beneficial in the treatment of pain.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during administration as a bolus plus an infusion, using electroencephalography as a pharmacodynamic end point. METHODS: Nine volunteers received a 2-mg bolus loading dose of lorazepam, coincident with the start of a 2 microg/kg/hr zero-order infusion. The infusion was stopped after 4 hrs. Plasma lorazepam concentrations and electroencephalographic activity in the 13- to 30-Hz range were monitored for 24 hrs. RESULTS: The bolus-plus-infusion scheme rapidly produced plasma lorazepam concentrations that were close to those predicted to be achieved at true steady state. Mean kinetic values for lorazepam were as follows: volume of distribution, 126 L; elimination half-life, 13.8 hrs; and clearance, 109 mL/min. Electroencephalographic effects were maximal 0.5 hr after the loading dose, were maintained essentially constant during infusion, and then declined in parallel with plasma concentrations after the infusion was terminated. There was no evidence of tolerance. Plots of pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect vs. plasma lorazepam concentration demonstrated counterclockwise hysteresis, consistent with an effect-site equilibration delay. This was incorporated into a kinetic-dynamic model in which hypothetical effect-site concentration was related to pharmacodynamic electroencephalographic effect via the sigmoid Emax model. The analysis yielded the following mean estimates: maximum electroencephalographic effect, 12.7% over baseline; 50% effective concentration, 13.1 ng/mL; and effect-site equilibration half-life, 8.8 mins. CONCLUSION: Despite the delay in effect onset, continuous infusion of lorazepam, preceded by a bolus loading dose, produces a relatively constant sedative effect on the central nervous system, which can be utilized in the context of critical care medicine.
Abstract: The present study investigates the kinetic disposition with focus on the racemization, glucuronidation capacity and the transplacental transfer of lorazepam in term parturients during labor. The study was conducted on 10 healthy parturients aged 18-37 years with a gestational age of 36-40.1 weeks, treated with a single oral dose of 2 mg racemic lorazepam 2-9 h before delivery. Maternal venous blood and urine samples were obtained over a 0-48 h interval and the umbilical cord sample was obtained immediately after clamping. Lorazepam enantiomers were determined in plasma and urine samples by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. In vitro racemization of lorazepam required the calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters as isomeric mixtures. The data were fitted to two-compartment model and the pharmacokinetic parameters are reported as means (95% CI): t(1/2a) 3.2h (2.6-3.7 h), K(a) 0.23 h(-1) (0.19-0.28 h(-1)), t(1/2) 10.4h (9.4-11.3h), beta 0.068 h(-1) (0.061-0.075h(-1)), AUC(0-infinity) 175.3(ngh)/ml (145.7-204.8(ngh)/ml), Cl/F 2.6 ml/(minkg) (2.3-2.9 ml/(minkg)), Vd/F178.8l (146.5-211.1l), Fel 0.3% (0.1-0.5%), and Cl(R) 0.010 ml/(minkg) (0.005-0.015 ml/(minkg)). Placental transfer of lorazepam evaluated as the ratio of vein umbilical/maternal vein plasma concentrations, obtained as an isomeric mixture, was 0.73 (0.52-0.94). Pregnancy changes the pharmacokinetics of lorazepam, with an increase in the apparent distribution volume, an increase in apparent oral clearance, and a reduction of elimination half-life. The increase in oral clearance may indicate an increase in glucuronidation capacity, with a possible reduction in the plasma concentrations of drugs depending on glucuronidation capacity as the major metabolic pathway.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe serotonergic symptoms following the addition of oxycodone to fluvoxamine. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old woman developed severe serotonergic features, including confusion, nausea, fever, clonus, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, shivering, and tachycardia, following the addition of oxycodone 40 mg twice daily to fluvoxamine 200 mg/day, easily fulfilling diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome. Discontinuation of the offending drugs resulted in resolution of her symptoms over 48 hours, and no other cause of the syndrome was identified. Use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the serotonergic symptoms and the addition of oxycodone to fluvoxamine therapy. DISCUSSION: Serotonin syndrome is a serious adverse reaction usually due to interactions with serotonergic drugs. There have been only 3 previous reports involving oxycodone. Most previous reports of serotonin syndrome involving analgesics have been associated with meperidine, dextromethorphan, and tramadol. Unlike these synthetic opioids, however, oxycodone does not inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. In addition, there are a number of other possible pharmacologic mechanisms for the interaction we observed. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring for serotonergic adverse events should be done when oxycodone is given to patients receiving serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.
Abstract: Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores were previously associated with serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) in a pilot study. To replicate these results, the association between ADS scores and SAA was determined using simple linear regression in subjects from a study of delirium in 201 long-term care facility residents who were not included in the pilot study. Simple and multiple linear regression models were then used to determine whether the ADS could be modified to more effectively predict SAA in all 297 subjects. In the replication analysis, ADS scores were significantly associated with SAA (R2 = .0947, P < .0001). In the modification analysis, each model significantly predicted SAA, including ADS scores (R2 = .0741, P < .0001). The modifications examined did not appear useful in optimizing the ADS. This study replicated findings on the association of the ADS with SAA. Future work will determine whether the ADS is clinically useful for preventing anticholinergic adverse effects.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications and memory and executive function in older men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred forty-four community-dwelling men aged 65 and older with diagnosed hypertension. MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes were measured using the Hopkins Verbal Recall Test (HVRT) for short-term memory and the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scale for executive function at baseline and during follow-up. Anticholinergic medication use was ascertained using participants' primary care visit records and quantified as total anticholinergic burden using a clinician-rated anticholinergic score. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to anticholinergic medications over the preceding 12 months was associated with poorer performance on the HVRT and IADLs. On average, a 1-unit increase in the total anticholinergic burden per 3 months was associated with a 0.32-point (95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.05-0.58) and 0.10-point (95% CI=0.04-0.17) decrease in the HVRT and IADLs, respectively, independent of other potential risk factors for cognitive impairment, including age, education, cognitive and physical function, comorbidities, and severity of hypertension. The association was attenuated but remained statistically significant with memory (0.29, 95% CI=0.01-0.56) and executive function (0.08, 95% CI=0.02-0.15) after further adjustment for concomitant non-anticholinergic medications. CONCLUSION: Cumulative anticholinergic exposure across multiple medications over 1 year may negatively affect verbal memory and executive function in older men. Prescription of drugs with anticholinergic effects in older persons deserves continued attention to avoid deleterious adverse effects.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor agonist that is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 3A and 2D6 enzymes. Rifampin is a strong inducer of several drug-metabolizing enzymes. The authors studied the interaction of rifampin with oxycodone. Their hypothesis was that rifampin enhances the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of oxycodone and attenuates its pharmacologic effect. METHODS: The protocol was a four-session, paired crossover. Twelve volunteers were given 600 mg oral rifampin or placebo once daily for 7 days. Oxycodone was given on day 6. In the first part of the study, 0.1 mg/kg oxycodone hydrochloride was given intravenously. In the second part of the study, 15 mg oxycodone hydrochloride was given orally. Concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and noroxymorphone were determined for 48 h. Psychomotor effects were characterized for 12 h by several visual analog scales. Analgesic effects were characterized by measuring the heat pain threshold and cold pain sensitivity. RESULTS: Rifampin decreased the area under the oxycodone concentration-time curve of intravenous and oral oxycodone by 53% and 86%, respectively (P < 0.001). Oral bioavailability of oxycodone was decreased from 69% to 21% (P < 0.001). Rifampin greatly increased the plasma metabolite-to-parent drug ratios for noroxycodone and noroxymorphone (P < 0.001). Pharmacologic effects of oral oxycodone were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of cytochrome P450 3A by rifampin reduced the area under the oxycodone concentration-time curve of intravenous and oral oxycodone. The pharmacologic effects of oxycodone were modestly attenuated. To maintain adequate analgesia, dose adjustment of oxycodone may be necessary, when used concomitantly with rifampin.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP34A) inhibitor itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally and intravenously administered oxycodone. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were administered 200 mg itraconazole or placebo orally for 5 days in a four-session paired cross-over study. On day 4, oxycodone was administered intravenously (0.1 mg/kg) in the first part of the study and orally (10 mg) in the second part. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its oxidative metabolites were measured for 48 h, and pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Itraconazole decreased plasma clearance (Cl) and increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-infinity) of intravenous oxycodone by 32 and 51%, respectively (P<0.001) and increased the AUC(0-infinity) of orally administrated oxycodone by 144% (P<0.001). Most of the pharmacokinetic changes in oral oxycodone were seen in the elimination phase, with modest effects by itraconazole on its peak concentration, which was increased by 45% (P=0.009). The AUC(0-48) of noroxycodone was decreased by 49% (P<0.001) and that of oxymorphone was increased by 359% (P<0.001) after the administration of oral oxycodone. The pharmacologic effects of oxycodone were enhanced by itraconazole only modestly. CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole increased the exposure to oxycodone by inhibiting its CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation. The clinical use of itraconazole in patients receiving multiple doses of oxycodone for pain relief may increase the risk of opioid-associated adverse effects.
Abstract: Cases of catatonia in patients with renal failure have been rarely reported. In this report, we describe two renal-insufficient patients with catatonia who had a good response to intramuscular lorazepam whereby the catatonic symptoms were relieved. Case 1 involved a patient with end-stage renal disease and severe pneumonia related respiratory failure. He responded well to intramuscular lorazepam (total dose, 4 mg) whereby the catatonia was elieved. Case 2 involved a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and rhabdomyolysis-related acute renal failure. He showed great improvement with intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) whereby the catatonia was subsequently relieved. This report demonstrates that intramuscular lorazepam is safe, effective and rapid in relieving catatonia associated with renal function impairment. Neither of the patients had a recurrence of catatonia during a period of 6- months follow-up. In conclusion, intramuscular lorazepam may play an important role in the treatment of catatonia associated with renal insufficiency.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma dispositions of oxycodone and its demethylates and dose escalation based on genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and OPRM1 in cancer patients receiving oxycodone. Sixty-two Japanese cancer patients receiving oxycodone extended-release tablets were enrolled. Predose plasma concentrations (C(12)) of oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone were determined at the titrated dose. Daily oxycodone escalation rate was evaluated as the opioid escalation index (OEI). Genetic variants did not significantly alter oxycodone C(12). Oxymorphone C(12) and its ratio to oxycodone C(12) were significantly higher in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers than in intermediate metabolizers but did not affect dose escalation. In contrast, noroxycodone C(12) and its ratio to oxycodone C(12) were significantly higher in the CYP3A5*1 carrier group than in the *3/*3 group. The OEI was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*3/*3 group than in the *1 carrier group. No significant difference was observed in the OEI in the other genetic variants. Noroxycodone C(12) was higher in the dose escalation group as compared to the nonescalation group and significantly affected the incidence of dose escalation. In conclusion, CYP3A5*3 altered the plasma disposition of noroxycodone, which was inversely affecting the dose escalation in cancer patients receiving oxycodone.
Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. METHODS: We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). RESULTS: A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults.
Abstract: A 77-year-old female with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer presented to a hospital outpatient clinic with tremor, weakness, inability to coordinate motor movements, and confusion. It was suspected that the symptoms were due to possible central nervous system metastases; however, a CT scan of her head was unremarkable. The lung clinic liaison pharmacist took a medication history from the patient, complimented by extra information from the patient's community pharmacy. The pharmacist suspected the rare side effect of serotonin syndrome was responsible for the patient's presenting symptoms caused by the combination of oxycodone and citalopram. The patient's symptoms resolved soon after oxycodone was changed to morphine.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare oxycodone concentrations in saliva and whole blood with a view to propose therapeutic concentrations in oral fluid. Oral fluid is an easy specimen to collect with several advantages over urine, including ease of collection and difficulty of adulteration. As oral fluid is a reflection of free drug circulating in the blood, drug concentrations in saliva are more closely related to blood levels than urine concentrations. The number of testing laboratories offering the analysis of prescription pain medications in urine has increased significantly over the last few years, along with the overuse and abuse of pain killing drugs, specifically oxycodone. Hence, the utility of oral fluid analysis in this field was assessed. DESIGN: Paired specimens of blood and oral fluid were retrospectively studied in an attempt to establish a range for oxycodone concentrations in oral fluid reflective of therapeutic intake. Twenty-three paired oral fluid-blood specimens were studied. Oral fluid samples had been collected with the Quantisal™ oral fluid device, stored cold and shipped overnight to the laboratory prior to testing. Blood specimens were collected simultaneously in gray top tubes. RESULTS: From 23 pairs of samples, the median concentration in oral fluid was 524 μg/L and blood was 53 μg/L. The whole blood to plasma ratio for oxycodone was 1.3, so the median plasma concentration was 41 μg/L projecting a saliva to plasma ratio (S:P ratio) of 12. The comparison of oral fluid-blood concentrations allowed the projection of a S:P ratio for oxycodone and the development of a potential therapeutic range for oxycodone in oral fluid. CONCLUSION: Saliva drug concentrations in pain management are more closely related to blood levels than urine so can be more easily interpreted. These data provide a foundation for interpretative advances; however, further research surrounding other pain medications and controlled studies are necessary.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs are often involved in explicit criteria for inappropriate prescribing in older adults. Several scales were developed for screening of anticholinergic drugs and estimation of the anticholinergic burden. However, variation exists in scale development, in the selection of anticholinergic drugs, and the evaluation of their anticholinergic load. This study aims to systematically review existing anticholinergic risk scales, and to develop a uniform list of anticholinergic drugs differentiating for anticholinergic potency. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE. Studies were included if provided (1) a finite list of anticholinergic drugs; (2) a grading score of anticholinergic potency and, (3) a validation in a clinical or experimental setting. We listed anticholinergic drugs for which there was agreement in the different scales. In case of discrepancies between scores we used a reputed reference source (Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference®) to take a final decision about the anticholinergic activity of the drug. RESULTS: We included seven risk scales, and evaluated 225 different drugs. Hundred drugs were listed as having clinically relevant anticholinergic properties (47 high potency and 53 low potency), to be included in screening software for anticholinergic burden. CONCLUSION: Considerable variation exists among anticholinergic risk scales, in terms of selection of specific drugs, as well as of grading of anticholinergic potency. Our selection of 100 drugs with clinically relevant anticholinergic properties needs to be supplemented with validated information on dosing and route of administration for a full estimation of the anticholinergic burden in poly-medicated older adults.
Abstract: No Abstract available
Abstract: The misuse and abuse of prescription medications in the United States continues to increase despite interventions by health care professionals, regulatory, and law enforcement agencies. Opioid analgesics are the leading class of prescription drugs that have caused unintentional overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines when taken alone are relatively safe agents in overdose. However, a 5-fold increase in deaths attributed to benzodiazepines occurred from 1999 to 2009. Emergency department visits related to opioid analgesics increased by 111% followed by benzodiazepines 89%. During 2003 to 2009, the 2 prescriptions drugs with the highest increase in death rates were oxycodone 264.6% and alprazolam 233.8%. Therefore, benzodiazepines have a significant impact on prescription drug unintentional overdoses second only to the opioid analgesics. The combination prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics commonly takes place. The pharmacokinetic drug interactions between benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics are complex. The pharmacodynamic actions of these agents differ as their combined effects produce significant respiratory depression. Physician and pharmacy shopping by patients occurs, and prescription drug-monitoring programs can provide important information on benzodiazepine and opioid analgesic prescribing patterns and patient usage. Health care professionals need to inform patients and work closely with regulatory agencies and legislatures to stem the increasing fatalities from prescription drug unintentional overdoses.
Abstract: Evaluation of a potential risk of metabolic drug-drug interactions (DDI) is of high importance in the clinical setting. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for oxycodone and its two primary metabolites, oxymorphone and noroxycodone, in order to assess different DDI scenarios using published in vitro and in vivo data. Once developed and refined, the model was able to simulate pharmacokinetics of the three compounds and the DDI extent in case of coadministration with an inhibitor, as well as the oxymorphone concentration variation between CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM). The reliability of the model was tested against published clinical studies monitoring different inhibitors and dose regimens, and all predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios were within the twofold acceptance range. This approach represents a strategy to evaluate the impact of coadministration of different CYP inhibitors using mechanistic incorporation of drug-dependent and system-dependent available in vitro and in vivo data.
Abstract: Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abstract: Oxycodone is a commonly used analgesic with a large body of pharmacokinetic data from various immediate-release or controlled-release formulations, under different administration routes, and in diverse populations. Longer terminal half-lives from extravascular administration as compared to IV administration have been attributed to flip-flop pharmacokinetics with the rate constant of absorption slower than elimination. However, PK parameters from the extravascular studies showed faster absorption than elimination. Sustained release formulations guided by the flip-flop concept produced mixed outcomes in formulation development and clinical studies. This research aims to develop a mechanistic knowledge of oxycodone ADME, and provide a consistent interpretation of diverging results and insight to guide further extended release development and optimize the clinical use of oxycodone. PK data of oxycodone in human studies were collected from literature and digitized. The PK data were analyzed using a new PK model with Weibull function to describe time-varying drug releases/ oral absorption, and elimination dependent upon drug input to the portal vein. The new and traditional PK models were coded in NONMEM. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address the relationship between rates of drug release/absorption and PK profiles plus terminal half-lives. Traditional PK model could not be applied consistently to describe drug absorption and elimination of oxycodone. Errors were forced on absorption, elimination, or both parameters when IV and PO profiles were fitted separately. The new mechanistic PK model with Weibull function on absorption and slower total body clearance caused by slower absorption adequately describes the complex interplay between oxycodone absorption and elimination in vivo. Terminal phase of oxycodone PK profile was shown to reflect slower total body drug clearance due to slower drug release/absorption from oral formulations. Mechanistic PK models with Weibull absorption functions, and release rate-dependent saturable total body clearance well described the diverging oxycodone absorption and elimination kinetics in the literature. It showed no actual drug absorption during the terminal phase, but slower drug clearance caused by slower release/absorption producing the appearance of flip-flop and offered new insight for the development of modified release formulations and clinical use of oxycodone.
Abstract: The hepatic metabolism of oxycodone by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), the main metabolic enzymes of phase I and phase II, respectively, was assessed in vitro. The N-demethylation by CYP3A4/5 and the O-demethylation by CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes (HLM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with intrinsic clearances of 1.46μL/min/mg and 0.35μL/min/mg, respectively. Although noroxycodone and oxymorphone mainly contribute to the elimination of oxycodone, the simulated total in vivo clearance using in vitro phase I metabolism was underestimated. For the first time, metabolism of oxycodone by UGT was deeply investigated using HLM, recombinant enzymes and selective inhibitors. Oxycodone-glucuronide was mainly produced by UGT2B7 (K=762±153μM, V=344±20 peak area/min/mg) and to a lesser extent by UGT2B4 (K=2454±497μM, V=201±19 peak area/min/mg). Finally, the kinetics of the drug-drug interactions were assessed using two CYP and UGT cocktail approaches. Incubations of HLM with phase I and phase II drug probes showed that oxycodone mainly decreased the in vitro activities of CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, UGT1A3, UGT1A6 and UGT2B subfamily with an important impact on UGT2B7.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools. Quantitative grading scores were extracted, reduced to drugs available in Germany, and reevaluated by expert discussion. Drugs were scored as having no, weak, moderate, or strong anticholinergic effects. Further drugs were identified in clinical routine and included as well. RESULTS: The literature search identified 692 different drugs, with 548 drugs available in Germany. After exclusion of drugs due to no systemic effect or scoring of drug combinations (n = 67) and evaluation of 26 additional identified drugs in clinical routine, 504 drugs were scored. Of those, 356 drugs were categorised as having no, 104 drugs were scored as weak, 18 as moderate and 29 as having strong anticholinergic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The newly created ACB score for drugs authorized in Germany can be used in daily clinical practice to reduce potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients. Further clinical studies investigating its effect on reducing anticholinergic side effects are necessary for validation.